相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional8篇

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相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional8篇

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(1)

中考英语同义词、近义词、相似词语辨析

郝小兴

选择填空。

1. He a lot of time playing computer games on weekends.

A. takes B. costs C. pays D. spends

2. The clothes in that shop are quite beautiful, but most of them too much.

A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

3. We will Beijing at about five o’clok tomorrow

morning.

A. arrive at B. arrive in C. reach to D. get

4. Today Jim his white shirt and brown trousers.

A. is putting on B. is wearing C. is dressing D. in

5. Is the woman yellow your teacher?

A. in B. putting on C. wearing D. dressing

6.—Bob, may I your MP4?

—Sure. But you’d better not it to others.

A. keep; lend B. lend; borrow C. borrow; keep D. borrow; lend

7. Don’t forget to “Thank you” when someone opens the door for you.

A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk

8.Our newspaper represents the of the people.

A. shout B. noise C. voice D. cry

9. Let’s get some about tourism on the Internet.

A. information B. message C. invention D. book

10.—Could you give me two on how to learn English well?

—Sure.

A. suggestions B. messages C. information D. advice

11. We’re busy because we have so housework to do today.

A. few B. little C. many D. much

12. There is milk at home. We have to buy some this afternoon.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

13. —I’d like grapes and pears.

—Oh, I only need orange juice.

A. some; a few B. a few; some C. a little; few D. a little; a few

14. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but of them came.

A. neither B. either C. none D. both

15.—There’s coffee and tea; you can have .

—Thanks.

A. either B. each C. one D. it

16.“Have try, you are so close to the answer,”the teacher said to Eric.

A. the other B. one another C. other D. another

17. My sister has two skirts. One is yellow; is black.

A. other B. another C. others D. the other

18. We don’t have enough nurses to look after the patients. At least are needed.

A. tn another nurses B. more ten nurses

C. other ten nurses D. another ten nurses

19. Sam looks like his dad. They are tall.

A. either B. any C. all D. both

20. —Which of the two T-shirts will you take?

—I’ll take , one for my brother, the other for myself.

A. either B. neither C. all D. both

21.—What the number of the students in your school?

—About two thousands. A number of them from England.

A. is ; are B. is ; is C. are ; is D. are ; are

22. the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of them are teachers.

A. A number of ; women B.A number of ; woman

C. The number of ; women D. The number of ; woman

23.—Guess how much it costs?

—I think it costs 15 and 20 dollars.

A. from B. between C. among D.with

24.—What do you often do classes to relax yourself?

—Listen to music.

A. over B. among C. between D. through

25.—The cake looks .

—Yes, and it tastes even _______.

A. well ; good B.nice ; better C. good; worse D. better; best

26. I didn’t sleep ______ last night. I feel tired now.

A. well B. nice C. fine D. good

27.—_______ do you visit your grandparents?

—Once a week.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How many

28.—_______ will the 30th London Olympic Games be held, do you know?

—In two years.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D.How much

29.—Granny, you look so weak. What’s wrong with you? —Terrible. The factory made _______ noise. It was ______ noisy that I couldn’t sleep well last night.

A. too much; so B. much too; so C. too much; too

D. too much; much too

30.—Has John come _______?

—Yes. He has ______ been here for 10 minutes.

A. yet ; already B. already ; yet C. already ; already D. yet ; yet

【辨析与讲解】

1.spend,take,cost,pay

Spend的宾语通常是时间、金钱。在主动语态中,句子的主语必须是人,而且后面不能用动词不定式作宾语。如:

She spent the whole evening(in)reading.她把整个晚上用来读书。

take常用来指“花费”时间,句子的主语通常是表示事物的词。如:

How long will this job take you?你做这项工作要花多长时间?

cost指花费时间、金钱或力气等,只能用表示事物的词作主语,且不能用于被动语态。如:

How much does the jacket cost?这件夹克多少钱?

pay主要指主语(某人)买某物(或为某事)付多少钱(给某人)。如:

I pay for my rooms by month.我按月支付房租。

2. arrive,get,reach

三者均可表示“到达”,arrive后通常接介词at(一般用于较小的地方)或in(一般用于较大的地方)。如:

We arrived at the station five minutes late.我们晚了5分钟到达车站。

get 之后通常接介词to。如:

When we got to the park,it began to rain.我们到达公园时,就开始下雨了。

reach是及物动词(较get更正式),其后可直接跟地点名词作宾语(后面不能接介词)。如:

He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到达北京。

3.speak,say,talk,tell

这四个动词都有“说”的意思。speak的意思是“讲话;演讲”,着重指说话的动作,指开口说或连续不断地说,多用作不及物动词;用作及物动词时,其宾语常是表示语言的词。如:

He can speak Japanese.他会说日语。

Say的意思是“说;讲”,一般用作及物动词,着重指说话的内容,它的宾语可以是名词、代词或直接引语等。如:

She says,“Don’t draw on the wall!”她说:“别在墙上画画”!

Talk的意思是“说;讲;谈话”,与speak的意义比较接近,但不如speak正式,着重强调两人之间的相互谈话,也可指单方面的讲话。如:

She is talking with John in English.她正在和约翰用英语交谈。

tell意为“告诉;讲述;吩咐”,多指以口头方式将某事告诉某人,常接双宾语。除为story,news,truth,joke,lie(谎言)等直接宾语外,还可以接人等间接宾语。如:

She is telling the children a story.她正在给孩子们讲故事。

4.bring,take,carry,fetch

这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用的场合各不相同。

bring作“带来;拿来”解。如:

Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了带一份你的作品给我。

take是bring的对语,作“带去,拿去”解。如:

Take the box away,please.请把盒子拿走。

Carry表示“运载;携带”,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至用头。如:

This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.这辆巴士可以载一百人。

fetch表示“去拿来”。如:

Please fetch me the documents in that room.请到那个房间去把文件给我拿来。

5.wear,put on,in,dress

Wear意为“穿着;戴着”,强调穿的状态。如:

I often wear white trousers.我经常穿白裤子。

put on意为“穿上;戴上”,强调穿的动作,其宾语是衣服、鞋、帽等。如:

It’s very cold outside.You’d better put on your coat.外面很冷,你最好穿上外套。

in是介词,表示“穿着;戴着”,后接“衣服或颜色”,由它所构成的短语只能作表语或定语。如:

He was in a new black coat.他穿着黑色的新外套。

dress表示动作或状态,常跟人作宾语,意为“给……穿衣”。如:

Could you please help me dress the children?你能帮我给孩子们穿上衣服吗?

【注意】当dress表示状态时,一般用be dressed in。

6.borrow,lend,keep

borrow意为“借入”,表示主语向别人借东西,是短暂性动词,不能和表示时间段的状语连用。常用于borrow sth. from sb.结构。如:

I borrowed a pen from her.我向她借了一支钢笔。

lend 意为“借出”,表示主语把东西借给别人,常用于lend sb.sth.或lend sth. to sb.结构如:

Could you lend me some money?=Could you lend some money to me?你能借我一些钱吗?

keep在表示“借”时,是延续性动词,通常表示“借某物多长时间”,多接for短语表示时间。如:

—How long can I keep the book?这本书我能借多少时间?

—You can keep it for a week.你可以借一个星期。

7.noise,voice,sound

Sound作“声音”解,含义最广,指可以听到的任何声音。如:

a weak sound 微弱的声音

noise 作“噪音;嘈杂声;吵闹声”解,指不悦耳、不和谐的声音。它既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词。如:

Another kind of pollution is noise.另外一种污染是噪音。

Voice 作“声音”解时,多指人发出的声音,包括说话声、歌声和笑声。如:

He shouted at the top of voice.他高声呼喊。

有时也用于引申意义,作“意见、发言权”解。如:

I have no voice in the matter.对于这件事,我没有发言权。

8.information,message

Information 是不可数名词,指通过学习、阅读、观察等而得到的“情报;消息”。如:

He wanted to get some new information for the computers.他想得到一些有关计算机的新信息。

message 意为“音信”,一般指口头传送或书写的“消息”,是可数名词。如:

I’ll leave a message on his desk.我会在他桌上留个字条。

注意:“两条信息”可表示为:two pieces of information或two messages.

9.few,a few,little, a little, several,some

few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“几乎没有”;而 a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一点儿”。 few和a few修饰可数名词;little和a little修饰不可数名词。

Several用于修饰可数名词,语意比a few和some 更肯定,含有“好几个”的意思。

some可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。

10.both,either,neither

both意为“(两者)都”, either意为“(两者中)任意一个” neither意为“(两者)都不”。如:

He has two daughters;both of them are beautiful.他有两个女儿;两个都漂亮。

He has two daughters; eithe of them are beautiful.他有两个女儿;每个长得都很漂亮。

He has two daughters;neither of them is beautiful.他有两个女儿,两个都不漂亮。

它们既可用作代词,也可作形容词。用作形容词时,both后接复数名词,而either和neither之后要接单数可数名词。

注意:三者用作代词并作主语时,both 之后的谓语动词通常用复数形式,either和neither之后的谓语动词通常用单数形式。

11.other,another,the other,any other

other泛指“其他的,另外的”,复数形式others 表示“另一些”,each other 表示“相互”。如:

Shall we make it some other time?我们能否定其他时间?

Some of us like singing and dancig,others prefer sports.我们中有些人喜欢唱歌跳舞,而另一些人则喜爱运动。

another表示不定数目中的另一个,意为“再一,又一”,一般接单数名词。但如果another后有few 或具体数词时,可接复数名词。如:

I want another student to help me.我需要另外一个学生来帮助我。

I want to eat another two apples.我想再吃两个苹果。

the other指“两者中的另一个”,one…the other…表示“一个……另一个……”。the other 也可指将某一整体为两部分时,所提到的另一个部分,此时它可修饰复数名词。

any other常用作形容词,其后跟可数名词的单数形式;作“无论哪一个,哪一些”讲时,其后跟名词复数形式。如:

He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他们班上任何其他的学生都要高。

12.a number of,the number of

a number of的意思是“许多的,大量的”,相当于many/ a lot of,后跟可数名词复数。a number of…作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

A number of foreignes are learning Chinese.许多外国人正在学汉语。

the number of…的意思是“……的数量/数目”,该结构与名词连用时,中心词是the number,作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:

The number of giant pandas is getting smaller and smaller because their living areas are becoming farmlands.大熊猫的数量越来越少,因为它们的生活区域被变为农田。

13.among,between

between的意思是“在……中间,在……之间”,一般指在两者之间。如:

There is a table between two windows.在两扇窗户之间有一张桌子。

among的意思是“在……中间,在……之中”,一般指在三个或三个以上的同类事物之中。如:

The teacher distibuted them among the students.老师把这些东西分给了学生。

14.how long,how often,how soon

how long指多长时间,主要用来对一段时间(如three days,four weeks等)提问。如:

How long ago was it ?这是多久前的事了?

how often指每隔多久,主要用来对频率副词或状语(如once a week等)提问。如:

—How often does he come here? 他(每隔)多久来一次?

—Once a month.每月一次。

how soon指再过多久,主要用来对表示将来的一段时间(in an hour,in two weeks等)提问。如:

How soon can you come?你多快能赶来?

15. too much,much too

too much的含义是“太多”,much为中心词。可修饰不可数名词、动词。也可充当代词,代替上下文提到的事物。如:

We’ve had too much rain lately.最近我们这里的雨下得太多了。

much too意为“太”,too为中心词。在句中修饰形容词或副词。如:

He drove much too fast.他开车开得太快了。

16. already,stil,yet

Already一般用于肯定句,常与完成时连用,但也可用于疑问句中,表示惊奇。如:

Are you tired already?I don’t believe it!你已经累了吗?我不相信!

still意为“仍然,还是”,多用于肯定句和疑问句中,强调动作正在进行。如:

They are still working.他们还在工作。

yet 意为“已经,还,尚,仍”,一般用于否定句和疑问句中,常位于主要动词前或句末。如:

We haven’t been to Beijing yet.我们还没有去过北京。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(2)

中考英语同义词、近义词、相似词语辨析

郝小兴

选择填空。

1. He a lot of time playing computer games on weekends.

A. takes B. costs C. pays D. spends

2. The clothes in that shop are quite beautiful, but most of them too much.

A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

3. We will Beijing at about five o’clok tomorrow

morning.

A. arrive at B. arrive in C. reach to D. get

4. Today Jim his white shirt and brown trousers.

A. is putting on B. is wearing C. is dressing D. in

5. Is the woman yellow your teacher?

A. in B. putting on C. wearing D. dressing

6.—Bob, may I your MP4?

—Sure. But you’d better not it to others.

A. keep; lend B. lend; borrow C. borrow; keep D. borrow; lend

7. Don’t forget to “Thank you” when someone opens the door for you.

A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk

8.Our newspaper represents the of the people.

A. shout B. noise C. voice D. cry

9. Let’s get some about tourism on the Internet.

A. information B. message C. invention D. book

10.—Could you give me two on how to learn English well?

—Sure.

A. suggestions B. messages C. information D. advice

11. We’re busy because we have so housework to do today.

A. few B. little C. many D. much

12. There is milk at home. We have to buy some this afternoon.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

13. —I’d like grapes and pears.

—Oh, I only need orange juice.

A. some; a few B. a few; some C. a little; few D. a little; a few

14. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but of them came.

A. neither B. either C. none D. both

15.—There’s coffee and tea; you can have .

—Thanks.

A. either B. each C. one D. it

16.“Have try, you are so close to the answer,”the teacher said to Eric.

A. the other B. one another C. other D. another

17. My sister has two skirts. One is yellow; is black.

A. other B. another C. others D. the other

18. We don’t have enough nurses to look after the patients. At least are needed.

A. tn another nurses B. more ten nurses

C. other ten nurses D. another ten nurses

19. Sam looks like his dad. They are tall.

A. either B. any C. all D. both

20. —Which of the two T-shirts will you take?

—I’ll take , one for my brother, the other for myself.

A. either B. neither C. all D. both

21.—What the number of the students in your school?

—About two thousands. A number of them from England.

A. is ; are B. is ; is C. are ; is D. are ; are

22. the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of them are teachers.

A. A number of ; women B.A number of ; woman

C. The number of ; women D. The number of ; woman

23.—Guess how much it costs?

—I think it costs 15 and 20 dollars.

A. from B. between C. among D.with

24.—What do you often do classes to relax yourself?

—Listen to music.

A. over B. among C. between D. through

25.—The cake looks .

—Yes, and it tastes even _______.

A. well ; good B.nice ; better C. good; worse D. better; best

26. I didn’t sleep ______ last night. I feel tired now.

A. well B. nice C. fine D. good

27.—_______ do you visit your grandparents?

—Once a week.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How many

28.—_______ will the 30th London Olympic Games be held, do you know?

—In two years.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D.How much

29.—Granny, you look so weak. What’s wrong with you? —Terrible. The factory made _______ noise. It was ______ noisy that I couldn’t sleep well last night.

A. too much; so B. much too; so C. too much; too

D. too much; much too

30.—Has John come _______?

—Yes. He has ______ been here for 10 minutes.

A. yet ; already B. already ; yet C. already ; already D. yet ; yet

【辨析与讲解】

1.spend,take,cost,pay

Spend的宾语通常是时间、金钱。在主动语态中,句子的主语必须是人,而且后面不能用动词不定式作宾语。如:

She spent the whole evening(in)reading.她把整个晚上用来读书。

take常用来指“花费”时间,句子的主语通常是表示事物的词。如:

How long will this job take you?你做这项工作要花多长时间?

cost指花费时间、金钱或力气等,只能用表示事物的词作主语,且不能用于被动语态。如:

How much does the jacket cost?这件夹克多少钱?

pay主要指主语(某人)买某物(或为某事)付多少钱(给某人)。如:

I pay for my rooms by month.我按月支付房租。

2. arrive,get,reach

三者均可表示“到达”,arrive后通常接介词at(一般用于较小的地方)或in(一般用于较大的地方)。如:

We arrived at the station five minutes late.我们晚了5分钟到达车站。

get 之后通常接介词to。如:

When we got to the park,it began to rain.我们到达公园时,就开始下雨了。

reach是及物动词(较get更正式),其后可直接跟地点名词作宾语(后面不能接介词)。如:

He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到达北京。

3.speak,say,talk,tell

这四个动词都有“说”的意思。speak的意思是“讲话;演讲”,着重指说话的动作,指开口说或连续不断地说,多用作不及物动词;用作及物动词时,其宾语常是表示语言的词。如:

He can speak Japanese.他会说日语。

Say的意思是“说;讲”,一般用作及物动词,着重指说话的内容,它的宾语可以是名词、代词或直接引语等。如:

She says,“Don’t draw on the wall!”她说:“别在墙上画画”!

Talk的意思是“说;讲;谈话”,与speak的意义比较接近,但不如speak正式,着重强调两人之间的相互谈话,也可指单方面的讲话。如:

She is talking with John in English.她正在和约翰用英语交谈。

tell意为“告诉;讲述;吩咐”,多指以口头方式将某事告诉某人,常接双宾语。除为story,news,truth,joke,lie(谎言)等直接宾语外,还可以接人等间接宾语。如:

She is telling the children a story.她正在给孩子们讲故事。

4.bring,take,carry,fetch

这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用的场合各不相同。

bring作“带来;拿来”解。如:

Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了带一份你的作品给我。

take是bring的对语,作“带去,拿去”解。如:

Take the box away,please.请把盒子拿走。

Carry表示“运载;携带”,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至用头。如:

This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.这辆巴士可以载一百人。

fetch表示“去拿来”。如:

Please fetch me the documents in that room.请到那个房间去把文件给我拿来。

5.wear,put on,in,dress

Wear意为“穿着;戴着”,强调穿的状态。如:

I often wear white trousers.我经常穿白裤子。

put on意为“穿上;戴上”,强调穿的动作,其宾语是衣服、鞋、帽等。如:

It’s very cold outside.You’d better put on your coat.外面很冷,你最好穿上外套。

in是介词,表示“穿着;戴着”,后接“衣服或颜色”,由它所构成的短语只能作表语或定语。如:

He was in a new black coat.他穿着黑色的新外套。

dress表示动作或状态,常跟人作宾语,意为“给……穿衣”。如:

Could you please help me dress the children?你能帮我给孩子们穿上衣服吗?

【注意】当dress表示状态时,一般用be dressed in。

6.borrow,lend,keep

borrow意为“借入”,表示主语向别人借东西,是短暂性动词,不能和表示时间段的状语连用。常用于borrow sth. from sb.结构。如:

I borrowed a pen from her.我向她借了一支钢笔。

lend 意为“借出”,表示主语把东西借给别人,常用于lend sb.sth.或lend sth. to sb.结构如:

Could you lend me some money?=Could you lend some money to me?你能借我一些钱吗?

keep在表示“借”时,是延续性动词,通常表示“借某物多长时间”,多接for短语表示时间。如:

—How long can I keep the book?这本书我能借多少时间?

—You can keep it for a week.你可以借一个星期。

7.noise,voice,sound

Sound作“声音”解,含义最广,指可以听到的任何声音。如:

a weak sound 微弱的声音

noise 作“噪音;嘈杂声;吵闹声”解,指不悦耳、不和谐的声音。它既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词。如:

Another kind of pollution is noise.另外一种污染是噪音。

Voice 作“声音”解时,多指人发出的声音,包括说话声、歌声和笑声。如:

He shouted at the top of voice.他高声呼喊。

有时也用于引申意义,作“意见、发言权”解。如:

I have no voice in the matter.对于这件事,我没有发言权。

8.information,message

Information 是不可数名词,指通过学习、阅读、观察等而得到的“情报;消息”。如:

He wanted to get some new information for the computers.他想得到一些有关计算机的新信息。

message 意为“音信”,一般指口头传送或书写的“消息”,是可数名词。如:

I’ll leave a message on his desk.我会在他桌上留个字条。

注意:“两条信息”可表示为:two pieces of information或two messages.

9.few,a few,little, a little, several,some

few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“几乎没有”;而 a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一点儿”。 few和a few修饰可数名词;little和a little修饰不可数名词。

Several用于修饰可数名词,语意比a few和some 更肯定,含有“好几个”的意思。

some可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。

10.both,either,neither

both意为“(两者)都”, either意为“(两者中)任意一个” neither意为“(两者)都不”。如:

He has two daughters;both of them are beautiful.他有两个女儿;两个都漂亮。

He has two daughters; eithe of them are beautiful.他有两个女儿;每个长得都很漂亮。

He has two daughters;neither of them is beautiful.他有两个女儿,两个都不漂亮。

它们既可用作代词,也可作形容词。用作形容词时,both后接复数名词,而either和neither之后要接单数可数名词。

注意:三者用作代词并作主语时,both 之后的谓语动词通常用复数形式,either和neither之后的谓语动词通常用单数形式。

11.other,another,the other,any other

other泛指“其他的,另外的”,复数形式others 表示“另一些”,each other 表示“相互”。如:

Shall we make it some other time?我们能否定其他时间?

Some of us like singing and dancig,others prefer sports.我们中有些人喜欢唱歌跳舞,而另一些人则喜爱运动。

another表示不定数目中的另一个,意为“再一,又一”,一般接单数名词。但如果another后有few 或具体数词时,可接复数名词。如:

I want another student to help me.我需要另外一个学生来帮助我。

I want to eat another two apples.我想再吃两个苹果。

the other指“两者中的另一个”,one…the other…表示“一个……另一个……”。the other 也可指将某一整体为两部分时,所提到的另一个部分,此时它可修饰复数名词。

any other常用作形容词,其后跟可数名词的单数形式;作“无论哪一个,哪一些”讲时,其后跟名词复数形式。如:

He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他们班上任何其他的学生都要高。

12.a number of,the number of

a number of的意思是“许多的,大量的”,相当于many/ a lot of,后跟可数名词复数。a number of…作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

A number of foreignes are learning Chinese.许多外国人正在学汉语。

the number of…的意思是“……的数量/数目”,该结构与名词连用时,中心词是the number,作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:

The number of giant pandas is getting smaller and smaller because their living areas are becoming farmlands.大熊猫的数量越来越少,因为它们的生活区域被变为农田。

13.among,between

between的意思是“在……中间,在……之间”,一般指在两者之间。如:

There is a table between two windows.在两扇窗户之间有一张桌子。

among的意思是“在……中间,在……之中”,一般指在三个或三个以上的同类事物之中。如:

The teacher distibuted them among the students.老师把这些东西分给了学生。

14.how long,how often,how soon

how long指多长时间,主要用来对一段时间(如three days,four weeks等)提问。如:

How long ago was it ?这是多久前的事了?

how often指每隔多久,主要用来对频率副词或状语(如once a week等)提问。如:

—How often does he come here? 他(每隔)多久来一次?

—Once a month.每月一次。

how soon指再过多久,主要用来对表示将来的一段时间(in an hour,in two weeks等)提问。如:

How soon can you come?你多快能赶来?

15. too much,much too

too much的含义是“太多”,much为中心词。可修饰不可数名词、动词。也可充当代词,代替上下文提到的事物。如:

We’ve had too much rain lately.最近我们这里的雨下得太多了。

much too意为“太”,too为中心词。在句中修饰形容词或副词。如:

He drove much too fast.他开车开得太快了。

16. already,stil,yet

Already一般用于肯定句,常与完成时连用,但也可用于疑问句中,表示惊奇。如:

Are you tired already?I don’t believe it!你已经累了吗?我不相信!

still意为“仍然,还是”,多用于肯定句和疑问句中,强调动作正在进行。如:

They are still working.他们还在工作。

yet 意为“已经,还,尚,仍”,一般用于否定句和疑问句中,常位于主要动词前或句末。如:

We haven’t been to Beijing yet.我们还没有去过北京。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(3)

中考英语同义词、近义词、相似词语辨析

郝小兴

选择填空。

1. He

A. takes B. costs C. pays D. spends

2. The clothes in that shop are quite beautiful, but most of them too much.

A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

3. We will Beijing at about five o’clok tomorrow

morning.

A. arrive at B. arrive in C. reach to D. get

4. Today Jim his white shirt and brown trousers.

A. is putting on B. is wearing C. is dressing D. in

5. Is the woman yellow your teacher?

A. in B. putting on C. wearing D. dressing

6.—Bob, may I your MP4?

—Sure. But you’d better not it to others.

A. keep; lend B. lend; borrow C. borrow; keep D. borrow; lend

7. Don’t forget to “Thank you” when someone opens the door for you.

A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk

8.Our newspaper represents the of the people.

A. shout B. noise C. voice D. cry

9. Let’s get some about tourism on the Internet.

A. information B. message C. invention D. book

10.—Could you give me two on how to learn English well?

—Sure.

A. suggestions B. messages C. information D. advice

11. We’re busy because we have so housework to do today.

A. few B. little C. many D. much

12. There is milk at home. We have to buy some this afternoon.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

13. —I’d like grapes and pears.

—Oh, I only need orange juice.

A. some; a few B. a few; some C. a little; few D. a little; a few

14. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but of them came.

A. neither B. either C. none D. both

15.—There’s coffee and tea; you can have .

—Thanks.

A. either B. each C. one D. it

16.“Have try, you are so close to the answer,”the teacher said to Eric.

A. the other B. one another C. other D. another

17. My sister has two skirts. One is yellow; is black.

A. other B. another C. others D. the other

18. We don’t have enough nurses to look after the patients. At least are needed.

A. tn another nurses B. more ten nurses

C. other ten nurses D. another ten nurses

19. Sam looks like his dad. They are tall.

A. either B. any C. all D. both

20. —Which of the two T-shirts will you take?

—I’ll take , one for my brother, the other for myself.

A. either B. neither C. all D. both

21.—What the number of the students in your school?

—About two thousands. A number of them from England.

A. is ; are B. is ; is C. are ; is D. are ; are

22. the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of them are teachers.

A. A number of ; women B.A number of ; woman

C. The number of ; women D. The number of ; woman

23.—Guess how much it costs?

—I think it costs 15 and 20 dollars.

A. from B. between C. among D.with

24.—What do you often do classes to relax yourself?

—Listen to music.

A. over B. among C. between D. through

25.—The cake looks .

—Yes, and it tastes even _______.

A. well ; good B.nice ; better C. good; worse D. better; best

26. I didn’t sleep ______ last night. I feel tired now.

A. well B. nice C. fine D. good

27.—_______ do you visit your grandparents?

—Once a week.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How many

28.—_______ will the 30th London Olympic Games be held, do you know?

—In two years.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D.How much

29.—Granny, you look so weak. What’s wrong with you? —Terrible. The factory made _______ noise. It was ______ noisy that I couldn’t sleep well last night.

A. too much; so B. much too; so C. too much; too

D. too much; much too

30.—

—Yes. He has ______ been here for 10 minutes.

A. yet ; already B. already ; yet C. already ; already D. yet ; yet

【辨析与讲解】

1.spend,take,cost,pay

Spend的宾语通常是时间、金钱。在主动语态中,句子的主语必须是人,而且后面不能用动词不定式作宾语。如:

She spent the whole evening(in)reading.她把整个晚上用来读书。

take常用来指“花费”时间,句子的主语通常是表示事物的词。如:

How long will this job take you?你做这项工作要花多长时间?

cost指花费时间、金钱或力气等,只能用表示事物的词作主语,且不能用于被动语态。如:

How much does the jacket cost?这件夹克多少钱?

pay主要指主语(某人)买某物(或为某事)付多少钱(给某人)。如:

I pay for my rooms by month.我按月支付房租。

2. arrive,get,reach

三者均可表示“到达”,arrive后通常接介词at(一般用于较小的地方)或in(一般用于较大的地方)。如:

We arrived at the station five minutes late.我们晚了5分钟到达车站。

get 之后通常接介词to。如:

When we got to the park,it began to rain.我们到达公园时,就开始下雨了。

reach是及物动词(较get更正式),其后可直接跟地点名词作宾语(后面不能接介词)。如:

He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到达北京。

3.speak,say,talk,tell

这四个动词都有“说”的意思。speak的意思是“讲话;演讲”,着重指说话的动作,指开口说或连续不断地说,多用作不及物动词;用作及物动词时,其宾语常是表示语言的词。如:

He can speak Japanese.他会说日语。

Say的意思是“说;讲”,一般用作及物动词,着重指说话的内容,它的宾语可以是名词、代词或直接引语等。如:

She says,“Don’t draw on the wall!”她说:“别在墙上画画”!

Talk的意思是“说;讲;谈话”,与speak的意义比较接近,但不如speak正式,着重强调两人之间的相互谈话,也可指单方面的讲话。如:

She is talking with John in English.她正在和约翰用英语交谈。

tell意为“告诉;讲述;吩咐”,多指以口头方式将某事告诉某人,常接双宾语。除为story,news,truth,joke,lie(谎言)等直接宾语外,还可以接人等间接宾语。如:

She is telling the children a story.她正在给孩子们讲故事。

4.bring,take,carry,fetch

这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用的场合各不相同。

bring作“带来;拿来”解。如:

Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了带一份你的作品给我。

take是bring的对语,作“带去,拿去”解。如:

Take the box away,please.请把盒子拿走。

Carry表示“运载;携带”,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至用头。如:

This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.这辆巴士可以载一百人。

fetch表示“去拿来”。如:

Please fetch me the documents in that room.请到那个房间去把文件给我拿来。

5.wear,put on,in,dress

Wear意为“穿着;戴着”,强调穿的状态。如:

I often wear white trousers.我经常穿白裤子。

put on意为“穿上;戴上”,强调穿的动作,其宾语是衣服、鞋、帽等。如:

It’s very cold outside.You’d better put on your coat.外面很冷,你最好穿上外套。

in是介词,表示“穿着;戴着”,后接“衣服或颜色”,由它所构成的短语只能作表语或定语。如:

He was in a new black coat.他穿着黑色的新外套。

dress表示动作或状态,常跟人作宾语,意为“给……穿衣”。如:

Could you please help me dress the children?你能帮我给孩子们穿上衣服吗?

【注意】当dress表示状态时,一般用be dressed in。

6.borrow,lend,keep

borrow意为“借入”,表示主语向别人借东西,是短暂性动词,不能和表示时间段的状语连用。常用于borrow sth. from sb.结构。如:

I borrowed a pen from her.我向她借了一支钢笔。

lend 意为“借出”,表示主语把东西借给别人,常用于lend sb.sth.或lend sth. to sb.结构如:

Could you lend me some money?=Could you lend some money to me?你能借我一些钱吗?

keep在表示“借”时,是延续性动词,通常表示“借某物多长时间”,多接for短语表示时间。如:

—How long can I keep the book?这本书我能借多少时间?

—You can keep it for a week.你可以借一个星期。

7.noise,voice,sound

Sound作“声音”解,含义最广,指可以听到的任何声音。如:

a weak sound 微弱的声音

noise 作“噪音;嘈杂声;吵闹声”解,指不悦耳、不和谐的声音。它既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词。如:

Another kind of pollution is noise.另外一种污染是噪音。

Voice 作“声音”解时,多指人发出的声音,包括说话声、歌声和笑声。如:

He shouted at the top of voice.他高声呼喊。

有时也用于引申意义,作“意见、发言权”解。如:

I have no voice in the matter.对于这件事,我没有发言权。

8.information,message

Information 是不可数名词,指通过学习、阅读、观察等而得到的“情报;消息”。如:

.他想得到一些有关计算机的新信息。

message 意为“音信”,一般指口头传送或书写的“消息”,是可数名词。如:

I’ll leave a message on his desk.我会在他桌上留个字条。

注意:“两条信息”可表示为:two pieces of information或two messages.

9.few,a few,little, a little, several,some

few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“几乎没有”;而 a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一点儿”。 few和a few修饰可数名词;little和a little修饰不可数名词。

Several用于修饰可数名词,语意比a few和some 更肯定,含有“好几个”的意思。

some可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。

10.both,either,neither

both意为“(两者)都”, either意为“(两者中)任意一个” neither意为“(两者)都不”。如:

He has two daughters;both of them are beautiful.他有两个女儿;两个都漂亮。

He has two daughters; eithe of them are beautiful.他有两个女儿;每个长得都很漂亮。

He has two daughters;neither of them is beautiful.他有两个女儿,两个都不漂亮。

它们既可用作代词,也可作形容词。用作形容词时,both后接复数名词,而either和neither之后要接单数可数名词。

注意:三者用作代词并作主语时,both 之后的谓语动词通常用复数形式,either和neither之后的谓语动词通常用单数形式。

11.other,another,the other,any other

other泛指“其他的,另外的”,复数形式others 表示“另一些”,each other 表示“相互”。如:

Shall we make it some other time?我们能否定其他时间?

Some of us like singing and dancig,others prefer sports.我们中有些人喜欢唱歌跳舞,而另一些人则喜爱运动。

another表示不定数目中的另一个,意为“再一,又一”,一般接单数名词。但如果another后有few 或具体数词时,可接复数名词。如:

I want another student to help me.我需要另外一个学生来帮助我。

I want to eat another two apples.我想再吃两个苹果。

the other指“两者中的另一个”,one…the other…表示“一个……另一个……”。the other 也可指将某一整体为两部分时,所提到的另一个部分,此时它可修饰复数名词。

any other常用作形容词,其后跟可数名词的单数形式;作“无论哪一个,哪一些”讲时,其后跟名词复数形式。如:

He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他们班上任何其他的学生都要高。

12.a number of,the number of

a number of的意思是“许多的,大量的”,相当于many/ a lot of,后跟可数名词复数。a number of…作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

A number of foreignes are learning Chinese.许多外国人正在学汉语。

the number of…的意思是“……的数量/数目”,该结构与名词连用时,中心词是the number,作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:

.大熊猫的数量越来越少,因为它们的生活区域被变为农田。

13.among,between

between的意思是“在……中间,在……之间”,一般指在两者之间。如:

There is a table between two windows.在两扇窗户之间有一张桌子。

among的意思是“在……中间,在……之中”,一般指在三个或三个以上的同类事物之中。如:

The teacher distibuted them among the students.老师把这些东西分给了学生。

14.how long,how often,how soon

how long指多长时间,主要用来对一段时间(如three days,four weeks等)提问。如:

How long ago was it ?这是多久前的事了?

how often指每隔多久,主要用来对频率副词或状语(如once a week等)提问。如:

—e? 他(每隔)多久来一次?

—Once a month.每月一次。

how soon指再过多久,主要用来对表示将来的一段时间(in an hour,in two weeks等)提问。如:

e?你多快能赶来?

15. too much,much too

too much的含义是“太多”,much为中心词。可修饰不可数名词、动词。也可充当代词,代替上下文提到的事物。如:

We’ve had too much rain lately.最近我们这里的雨下得太多了。

much too意为“太”,too为中心词。在句中修饰形容词或副词。如:

He drove much too fast.他开车开得太快了。

16. already,stil,yet

Already一般用于肯定句,常与完成时连用,但也可用于疑问句中,表示惊奇。如:

Are you tired already?I don’t believe it!你已经累了吗?我不相信!

still意为“仍然,还是”,多用于肯定句和疑问句中,强调动作正在进行。如:

They are still working.他们还在工作。

yet 意为“已经,还,尚,仍”,一般用于否定句和疑问句中,常位于主要动词前或句末。如:

We haven’t been to Beijing yet.我们还没有去过北京。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(4)

英语相似词语辨析

  able,capable

  这一对词都是形容词,又都含有能够、能干之意,但涵义和使用场合有所不同,大致有如下几点区别:

  (一)

  在用作定语表示能干的意味时,able所描述的范围较概括,capable所描述的范围较专注,因为前者指某人聪明能干,有多才多艺的概括涵义;后者仅指具有应付某一特指工作要求的能力。例:

  She is an able teacher

  她是个能干的教师。

  She is a capable teacher.

  她是个能胜任工作的教师。

  (二)

  able指能够,是一时之现象;capable常用以指能力,是经常的现象。如:

  I shall not be able to come to the office tomorrow.

  明天我不能到办公室来(指由于某种原因而暂时不能来)。

  She is incapable of manual labour.

  她不能从事体力劳动(指由于某种长期或经常的原因,例如患病而不能劳动)。

  (三)

  指某人能作某事时,able之后接动词不定式,capable之后接介词of.例如:

  We are able to get back to town before dark.

  我们能够天黑之前赶回市区。

  They are not capable of doing the work.

  他们没有能力做这件工作。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(5)

相似词语的辨析

  一、 finish, end, complete

  1. finish 常译为“完成,结束”,强调做某动作的结束,后面可接名词、代词、动名词。

  例如: I have finish the book.

  我已经把这本书看完了。

  分析: finish 后接 book 作宾语,强调看书这个动作结束。

  2. end 常译为“结束”,强调某事终止的时间而不考虑内容是否真正完成,常用于讲话、演讲、会议、战争等。

  例如: The war ended in 1945.

  战争于 1945 年结束。

  分析: end 在这里只强调战争在 1945 年结束,而没有涉及到战争是否进行到最后。

  3. complete 常译为“完成,完毕”,一般指具体某一工程或一部分书的完成,强调完成工程。另外,还有“使……完整”之意。

  例如: I have completed the book.

  我已写完了这本书。

  分析:强调写完了整本书,整本书全部完成。

  There is one word missing in the sentence, please complete it.

  这个句子缺少一个单词,请将其填入使句子完整。

  分析:句子缺少一个单词,说明给句子加上一个单词就能使句子完整。

  二、 for a moment, for the moment, in a moment, at the moment

  1. for a moment 常译为“片刻,一会儿”。例如:

  For a moment I thought of playing truant.

  那一刻我有了逃学的念头。

  I would like to speak to you for a moment.

  我想和你谈一会儿。

  2. for the moment 常译为“暂时,目前”。

  例如: Filled for the moment with extraordinary strength, he raised  himself completely.

  他一下子使出了惊人的力气,完全站了起来。

  We have to stay in the inn for the moment, as the hotels around are full.

  由于周围的旅馆都已住满了,我们暂时只能呆在小客栈里。

  3. in a moment 常译为“立即,立刻”。

  例如:You go first, I will go in a moment.

  你先走,我马上就来。

  Do not go away, the bus will start in a moment.

  别走开,汽车马上就开了。

  4. at the moment 用于现在时中,常译为“此刻”;用于过去时态中,常译为“那时”。

  例如: I am busy at the moment.

  我此刻很忙。

  Our manager is having an interview with a newspaper reporter at the moment.

  此刻我们经理正在接受报社记者采访。

  At the moment, Tom was playing hide-seek with other boys.

  那时,汤姆正与其他孩子捉迷藏。

  三、 fault, shortcoming, mistake, wrong

  1. fault 常译为“缺点,毛病,过失”,多指性格上的弱点,或行为上的过失,强调由于过失而应付的责任。例如:

  It is his own fault that he failed in the examination.

  考试失败是他自己的过失。

  2. shortcoming 常译为“缺点,短处”,指日常生活、工作、学习中的不足、缺点、毛病,指一般的缺点,常用复数。

  例如: Though he has a lot of shortcomings, he is a good student.

  尽管他有很多缺点,他还是一个好学生。

  3. mistake 常译为“错误,误会”,多指缺乏正确理解,造成行动上或认识上的错误。

  例如: I took your book by mistake.

  我错拿了你的书。

  4. wrong 常译为“过失,委屈,罪行”,主要指不符合道德法规的错误,罪行、不公正的对待。

  例如: You should know right from wrong.

  你应该明辨是非。

  四、 for the first time, the first time

  两个短语都是“第一次,首次”的意思。但是, for the first time 表示有生以来或一生中第一次做某事,在句中一般单独作状语; the first time 常引导时间状语从句,其重点不是要说第一次做了什么,而是要叙述这一动作产生的情况;也可以引导一个表语从句,强调到说话为止某一动作发生的次数。例如:

  1. The girl was criticized by her teacher for the first time.

  分析: for the first time 在句中作状语。

  2. He was invited to give an important talk for the first time.

  分析: for the first time 在句中作状语。

  3. The first time I met her, I knew we could be friends.

  分析: the first time 在句中引导时间状语从句,相当于 when .

  4. The first time I came to the village, it was very poor and backward.

  分析: the first time 在句中引导时间状语从句,相当于 when .

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(6)

  believe,believe in

  这一对词语都表示“相信不疑”的意思,但词意有细微的区别。

  Believe表示“相信”、“信以为真”(to accept as true)之意,它是及物动词,其后直接跟宾语。例

  Do you believe his reports?

  你相信他的报告吗?

  I could hardly believe my eyes.

  我几乎不能相信自己的眼睛。

  In ancient times it was believed that the earth was flat.

  古时候,人们认为地球是扁平的。

  Believe in则表示“信仰”、“信任”(to have faith in somebody or something)之意。其后的常用搭配语为有关宗教、理论、原则、概念及可信任之人,如a religion、ghosts、 fairies、 a theory、 a friend等词;例中的believe为不及物动词。如

  We do not believe in ghosts.

  我们不信鬼神。

  He believes in getting plenty of exercise.

  他相信多锻炼身体就会有好处。

  In the days of the French Revolution,people believed in liberty,equality and fraternity.

  法国大革命时代的人们信奉自由、平等及博爱。

  现在试比较下列两语的不同涵义

  I believe him.(=I believe what he says)

  我相信他(的话)。

  I believe in him.(=I trust him )

  我相信他是一个可以信得过的人。(即我信任他)

  在英美人的谈话中,经常可以听到这么一句口头禅——Believe me这是一个用以表示希望对方相信自己谈话的口头语,它相当于I bet或 Take my word for it.例

  Believe me,you will get well very soon.

  你一定会很快就恢复健康的。

  Believe me 可以根据不同的场合,译作“真的”、“我不骗你”、“一定会”或“请相信”。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(7)

      able, capable
  这一对词都是形容词,又都含有“能够”、“能干”之意,但涵义和使用场合有所不同,大致有如下几点区别:
  (一)在用作定语表示“能干的”意味时,able所描述的范围较概括,capable所描述的范围较专注,因为前者指某人聪明能干,有多才多艺的概括涵义;后者仅指具有应付某一特指工作要求的能力。例:
  She is an able teacher
  她是个能干的教师。
  She is a capable teacher.
  她是个能胜任工作的教师。
  (二)able指“能够”,是一时之现象;capable常用以指“能力”,是经常的现象。如:
  I shall not be able to come to the office tomorrow.
  明天我不能到办公室来(指由于某种原因而暂时不能来)。
  She is incapable of manual labour.
  她不能从事体力劳动(指由于某种长期或经常的原因,例如患病而不能劳动)。
  (三)指某人能作某事时,able之后接动词不定式,capable之后接介词of。例如:
  We are able to get back to town before dark.
  我们能够天黑之前赶回市区。
  They are not capable of doing the work.
  他们没有能力做这件工作。
  (四)capable除表示“有能力的”意味外,还可用以表示“有可能的”涵义,able则没有这个用法。如:
  The situation is capable of improvement.
  此情况有可能好转。
  That oil tanker is capable of being restored.
  那艘油轮有可能修好。
  请注意,下列句中的able是用错了,应改为capable:
  This book is able to be translated.(错)
  This book is capable of being translated.(对)
  That law is able to be evaded.(错)
  That law is capable of being evaded.(对)
  (五) able 一般用作正面意义,指好人好事;capable 则是中性词,既可指好事,亦可指坏事,例如在下例中,capable of anything是表示“任何坏事都做得出来”之意:
  That guy is capable of anything!
  那家伙什么勾当都会干得出来!
  (六) able的反义词是unable;capable的反义词是incapable。另一点值得注意的是,able的名词是 ability,义:“能力”(the power to do);capable的名词是capability 或 capacity,前者义:“具有从事某事的能力”;后者义:“容量”或“受容力”。需要在此指出的是,ability是可以通过练习或锻炼获得的,而capability则是固有的能力,它与练习或锻炼无关。通过下列例句的对比,我们不难区分其义蕴:
  I do not doubt his ability to do the work.
  He has the capability to benefit from university education.
  第一句的ability是指通过训练或工作磨炼而获得的“能力”;第二句的capability是指天赋之才,与后天无关。 
 
  according as,according to
  这两个词组虽然相似,但它们的结构和使用场合并不相同。according to表示“根据”、“按照”;而according as表示“视乎”,有depending及according to whether的意味。
  According as是连词词组,其后接从句;according to 是介词短语,其后接名词。例:
  The thermometer rises or falls according to the high or low temperature.
  寒暑表根据气温的高低而升降。
  They will be praised or blamed according as their work is good or bad.
  给他们的赏罚将视乎他们工作的好坏来决定。
  应当在此指出,在现代英语中,according as的句型结构已很少有人使用,正如 Bergen Evans和 Cornelia Evans在A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage 中指出的那样:“This construction is not often heard today”。
  下面是according to的例句:
  According to the weather report,we shall have cold weather next week.
  根据天气报告,下星期天气将要转冷。
  You should act according to circumstances.你们要随机应变。
  According to有个同义短语,即 in accordance with,但它们的涵义有细微的区别,前者强调“根据…所言”,后者则强调“与…要一致”。另外 in accordance with多用于正式场合,例如表示与一些原则、规律一致。例:
  According to police report,five luxury cars were stolen in Kowloon yesterday.
  根据警方报告,昨天在九龙有五辆豪华汽车失窃。
  We must proceed in accordance with the rules.
  我们必须按照规章办事。
  That sentence is not in accordance with the rules of grammar.
  那个句子不符合语法规则。
  请注意,in accordance with 既可引导 adverbial phrase,又可引导adjectival phrase作verb“to be”的补语(见上面 in accordance with的第一和第二个例句);according to则不能。例如,我们不能说:
  The news is according to Hong Kong’s broadcasting station.(错)
  另一点需要补充说明的是,in accord with 和 in accordance with同义,它们可以互换使用,但前者远不及后者用得普遍。英国学者F.T.Wood认为,我们最好在强凋“与…一致”(agreement)的时候,用in accord with;在强调“服从”或“遵照执行”(obeying or following)的涵义时,用 in accordance with。例如:
  What he has done is not in accord with your instructions.
  In accordance with your instructions we have suspended work on the heating apparatus. 

  across, cross
  这两个词都是表示“横越”、“渡过”之意,在拼写上仅差一字之微,故很易混淆。它们的区别在于词性和使用场合有所不同。across是介词;cross是动词。
  下面请看例句:
  My house is across the harbour,in the vicinity of the Kowloon Park.
  我的家在海港的对岸,九龙公园附近。
  They live across the Central Plaza.
  他们住在中央广场的对面。
  Everyone shouts“kill it!”when a rat is seen to run across the street.
  老鼠过街,人人喊打。
  He has crossed the border into another territory.
  他已越过边界进入别国的领土。
  Many steel arch bridges cross the Mississippi in its lower reaches.
  在密西西比河的下游许多拱形铁侨横跨河面。
  They have crossed over to Japan.
  他们已东渡去日本了。
  coss除作动词外,亦可作名词。作名词时,有较强的构词能力,它所构成的词的某些词义和用法是值得注意的。例如crossroad是“交叉路”或“横马路”,而crossroads却是“十字路”或“十字路口”,它的前面可以用a,但-s不能丢掉。如:
  The accident took place at a crossroads.
  车祸发生在十字路口。
  They drive across the plain by way of a crossroad leading to the highway.
  他们沿着一条通往公路的交叉路驾车横过平原。
  cross-reference是“前后参照”、“互见条目”的意思,专指同一书刊中前后互相参阅的说明。例:
  In this book cross-references are shown in capital letters.
  在本书中,前后参照的互见条目用大写字母表示。
  crossing是“渡口”、“横道线”或“(铁路与公路的)交叉点”。如:
  The Star Ferry Pier is a ferry crossing in central.
  天星码头是在中环的一个渡口。
  All care should stoP at the zebra crossing.
  所有车辆都要在斑马线前停下。
  A bus ran into a train at the level/grade crossing.
  一辆公共汽车在平交点与火车相撞。 

  act as,act like
  乍然看来,act as和 act like是两个同义短语,在涵义上无甚区别可言,其实不然。
  Act as的意思是“充当”、“担任”,相当于 serve as,可与人或物词如:doctor、director、interpreter、guide、coach、 teacher、go-between、furniture、tools等字搭配使用。as是连词,引导一个省略了谓语的状语从句。例:
  This herb can act as an antidote against snakebite.
  这种药草可以用作蛇咬的解毒药。
  Last summer she acted as a guide for tourists.
  去年夏天,她担任旅游向导。
  This coin may act as a screwdriver.
  这枚硬币可以充当螺丝起子用。
  Mr.Liu acted as group leader while Mr.Zhang was ill.
  张先生生病时,刘先生任组长。
  请注意,有时候,act for与act as的意义颇相近,但它们在表示概念方面互不相同。act as是“(临时)充当”或“起…的作用”; act for则表示“代理”的涵义。请比较下一句和前述句:
  Mr.Liu acted for Mr.Zhang while,the latter was ill.
  张先生患病期间,刘先生代理他的工作。
  Act like的意思是“行为像”、“举动像”,相当于英语的 to act in the manner of,它常与人或动物名词连用。like是介词,其后接宾语。例:
  That child acts like a grown-up.
  那个孩子的举动像成年人一样。
  Don’t act like a fool!
  别像傻瓜一般!
  His refusal of our offer acted like a wet blanket.
  他拒绝了我们的建议,真使我们扫兴。
  (注:a wet blanket 作“令人扫兴的事或人”。) 

  admit,admit of
  一般说来,admit表示“许入”、“进入”(allow somebody or something to enter)或“承认”(acknowledge)的意义;admit of则表示“容许”(allow of)或“容有”(leave room for)之意。例如:
  This ticket admits one person only.
  此券只准一人入场。
  I admitted him to the lecture.
  我准许他入内听讲。
  He has admitted the fact.
  他已承认此事。
  This matter admits of no delay.
  此事刻不容缓。
  This word admits of several interpretations.
  这个词可作几种解释。
  Admit的主语既可以是物,也可以是人,而admit of 的主语只可以是没有生命的事物。例如,我们不能说: I can’t admit of your doing it,而只能说:I can’t allow you to do it。又如,不可以说:He can admit of no question,而应该说:His veracity admits of no question(他的诚信是勿容置疑的)。
  值得注意的是,admittance和admission都是admit 的名词,它们都有“准入”之意,但使用场合不同。一般说来,admittance用于直义,即指准许某人进入某一场所;admission则大都用于比喻意,指准许进入的权利、入场费或入会费而言。因此,“入场券”译作admission ticket,不译作admittance ticket。“如非公事,不得擅进(非请勿进)”则译作 No admittance except on business。现将这两个词作一比较:
  They refused him admittance when he arrived.
  他抵达时他们拒绝他入场。
  They granted him admission.
  他门准许他入会。
  此外,admit用作解“承认”时,之后可以接动名词或从句,但不能接动词不定式。例如: He admits having seen the book或 He admits that he saw the book。但不可以说:He admits to have seen the book。
  在现代英语中,有时我们可以看到 admit to这么一个短语,其义相当于confess to (承认),例如:
  In spit of all the evidence against her,she refused to admit to the crime.
  虽然所有证据都对她不利,但是她拒绝承认犯了罪。
  有些西方学者认为,admit to 并不是地道的英语,最好避免使用。
  与之类似区别的词语有 allow和allow of。前者的意思是“许可”(permit);后者的意思是“容有…余地”(leave room for)。它们的用法与 admit和 admit of相同。 

  advance, advancement
  Advance用作名词时,很易和另一名词advancement 混淆不清,因为这两个词都有“前进”、“进步”和“进展”之意。它们的区别如下:
  一般说来,advance含有自动的意味,advancement 则含有被动的意味。例如:advance of science是“科学的进步”; advancement of science则是“科学的被人推进”。从下列两个例句,我们可以辨别出它们的区别:
  Discovering a cure for AIDS would be a major medical advance.
  发现治疗艾滋病的方法将是医学上的一大进展。
  We have made a program for the advancement of science.
  我们已制定了一个发展科学的规划。
  通过上列例句的对比,我们可以联想到 advance in rank 和 advancement in rank;advance in industy和advancement in industry;advance in society和advancement in society等语的涵义区别。
  在表示“行军”或“向…行进”的意义时,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。例:
  They have done their best to resist the advance of the enemy.
  他们已尽力阻挡敌人向前推进。
  Road blocks were set up to obstruct the advance of the demonstrators.
  设置路障是要阻止示威人士前进。
  在某些固定的词组里,例如 in advance、in advance of、be on the advance,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。如:
  Please pay the bill in advance.
  请先付账。
  The plane reached Hong Kong ten minutes in advance of its scheduled time.
  飞机比预定的时间提早了十分钟到达香港。
  Recently the new stocks are on the advance.
  最近新股看涨。
  advance一字除用作名词和动词(如 In recent days prices advanced rapidly。近日来,价格猛涨)之外,亦可用作形容词。作形容词时,其意为“预先的”、“在前的”。如:advance notice(预先通知);advance booking (预订/预售(票));advance payment(预先付款);advance copy((发行前的)新书样本); advance party of soldiers(先头部队)。
  值得注意的是,advanced也可用作形容词,但其意为“先进的”、“高级的”。如:advanced ideas(进步的思想);advanced algebra(高等代数);advanced courses(高级课程)。 

  after, behind
  After用作介词时,很易和另一介词behind混淆不清,因为它们都表示“在…之后”的意思。它们的区别有以下几点:
  (一)一般说来,after指时间的先后次序,意为“在…之后”(later in time than); behind指位置的前后,意为“在…后面”(in the rear of)。例如:
  I shall be free after ten o’clock.
  十点之后我有空。
  The national stadium is located behind the hill.
  国家运动场在山岗的后面。
  (二)after常用以指顺序,意为“跟在…之后”、“接着”、“接连”(in succession or next to in order); behind 则表示“隐匿在后”、“背着”或“遗留在后”之意。如:
  After you,please!
  您先请!(出门或进门时的客套用语)
  You should put the direct object after the indirect object.
  你应该把直接宾语放在间接宾语之后。
  The policemen are searching for the robbers door after door.
  警察正在挨家挨户地搜查劫匪。
  Day after day and year after year…
  日复一日,年复一年……。
  Don’t stand behind the door.
  不要躲在门背后。
  Don’t speak evil of a man behind his back.
  不要在背后说人坏话。
  Who is behind the scenes?
  谁是幕后人?
  Those smugglers ran away and left no trace behind them.
  那些走私客逃走时没有留下任何痕迹。
  (三)在某些场合下,after和behind可以互换使用,但涵义有所不同。如:
  Shut the door after you.(1)
  Shut the door behind you.(2)
  (1)句的意思是“随手关门”,after含有离开与关门两个动作的先后的意味;(2)句的意思是“关上你背后的门”,behind表示门的静止状态的意味,正因为如此,我们通常说:Don’t stand behind the door,而不说:Don’t stand after the door。
  值得注意的是,在另一些场合下,after和behind 在互换使用后,其意并无区别可言。如:
  John came in after Alice.
  John came in behind Alice.
  The dog ran after its master.
  The dog ran behind its master.
  Behind除作介词外,尚可用作副词、名词和形容词; after除作介词外,还可用作副词、连词和形容词,由于不属本书探讨范围之内,这里就不赘述。 

  alive, living
  这两个词都表示“活着的”、“有生命的”(having life)意思,词义相同,但用法有所不同。
  Alive是表语形容词,放在verb“to be”之后,不能放在它所说明的名词之前。例如我们只可以说 The old man is still alive。
  Living既可用作表语形容词,又可用作定语形容词,故可放在它所修饰的名词之前。
  我们既可以说:
  English is a living language.
  也可以说:
  Is his father still living?
  就使用场合而言,alive大都用于人,有时用作比喻或强调时也用于物。例如:
  Given the chance to sing on stage,he is very much alive.
  有机会在台上唱歌,他显得很活跃。
  The bazaar was all alive by the time we arrived.
  我们到达时,墟市非常热闹。
  Living则人物共用(请参阅上面两例)。
  就词性而言,alive只能用作形容词,不能作名词;living既可作形容词,又可作名词。例:
  Many people were burnt alive in the conflagration that happened in a multi-storeyed building.
  在一幢多层大厦内发生的大火中,很多人被活活烧死。
  Our living standards are rising steadily.
  我们的生活水平在不断提高。
  Those who enjoy a good living seldom understand the suffering of the poor.
  过着美好生活的人一般都不明白穷人所受之苦。
  在某些场合下,living和alive表示的涵义并不相同,尽管它们都用作表语。例如:
  At last we found him in a trap in the forest,still living but not alive.
  通过对比,可以看出,living之意是“活的”;alive 之意是“有气息的”。这里的not alive表示人虽然还活着,但已“气息奄奄”、“没有生气”了。
  Alive有时尚可表示“alert”“感觉到的”、“敏感的”涵义。如:
  He is alive to the imminent danger.
  他感觉到那迫在眉睫的危险。 

  alone, lone
  这一对词都有“单独”、“孤单”(having no other person or thing nearby)之意,但用法有所不同。
  就词性而言,alone既可作形容词,又可作副词;而lone只能作形容词,不能作副词。例如:
  He is alone.(adj.)
  He live alone.(adv.)
  A lone bird flew past.(adj.)
  用作形容词时,alone只能作表语;而lone一般只能作定语。例:
  I am alone.(不能说: I am an alone person)
  我独居。
  She wants to make a lone flight.
  她想单独飞行。
  在现代英语里,alone和lone跟lonely涵义不同,前二者只表示“单独”,没有感情色彩,但后者则表示“孤单、寂寞”的感受。例:
  Though I was alone in Hong Kong,I did not feel lonely.
  虽然我独居香港,但是我并不感到寂寞。
  The lone traveller led a lonely life.
  那独行客过着寂寞的人生。
  关于alone一词,在使用时要注意几点:
  (一)alone是表语形容词,因此,我们不能说:very alone,只可以说much alone或very much alone。
  (二)alone虽然作“单独”、“孤单”解,但它并不一定用于表示贬义的场合,因为有些人生来就喜欢“孤单”和“清静”,例如下句中的alone就是反映这个涵义:
  Leave me alone.
  不要打扰我。
  (三)alone用在名词或代词之后可以表示“唯有”、“唯独”之意。例:
  Jackson alone knows what happened.
  唯有杰克逊一个人知道出了什么事。
  You alone can help me in this task.
  只有你才能在这件事中帮助我。
  (四)let alone是固定词组,其义为“更不用说”、“不在话下”。例:
  He can speak Spanish,let alone English.
  他能说西班牙文,英语就更不在话下了。
  He can’t drive a car,let alone a truck.
  他连小汽车都不会开,更不用说开卡车了。
  由例句可见,let alone与to say nothing of同义,它们可互换使用。
 
  also, too
  这两个词都是副词,又都表示“也是”的意思,但在修辞意味和使用场合上有所不同。它们的区别如下:
  (一)一般说来,also用于比较正式(formal)的场合,语气比too庄重; too是惯熟(familiar)的用语,使用范围较广。
  (二)also在句中的位置要紧靠动词; too在句中的位置比较灵活,有时插入句中,前后用逗号分开,有时放在句末。
  (三)too只能用在肯定句中,不可用于否定句内。在否定句中,只能用either;also则可以用在否定句中。
  下面请看例句:
  The Hong Kong Chief Executive also heads the university as Chancellor.
  香港行政长官也以(大学)校监身份领导大学。
  Reading books is learning,but application is also learning and the more important form of learning.
  读书是学习,买践也是学习,而且是更重要的学习。
  We have not heard such a thing.Also,we have never seen such a scene.
  我们没有听见过这种事情,我们也从来没有见过这种场面。
  请注意,一般说来,also在句中的位置应紧靠动词,但有时为了强调其意,也可以将它放在句首或句末。
  Here,too,the colon must be followed by a dash.
  这里也一样,应当在冒号之后加破折号。
  Mary,too,can play the piano.
  玛丽也会弹钢琴。
  Could you speak Japanese?—Yes,and Spanish too.
  您会说日语吗?——会的,还会说西班牙语哩。
  Also虽然和too同义,但前者大都用于书面语,后者大都用于口语。例:
  The lady washed the children and also gave them dinner.(书面语)
  The lady washed the children and gave them dinner too.(口语)
  在口语中,too还可以用 as well代替。
  有时候,also在句中的位置不同,句子的涵义也会跟着变化。例:
  John is also concerned in this matter.(1)
  John also is concerned in this matter.(2)
  John is concerned in this matter also.(3)
  (1)句的涵义是:John is concerned in this matter as well as that one.
  (2)句的涵义是:John is concerned in this matter,just as somebody else is.
  (3)句的涵义是:This matter is the last of many that have been mentioned. 

  amount, number
  这一对词都能用作名词和动词,又都表示“数目”、“总数”之意,故很易混淆。
  它们之间的区别是,amount用于不可数名词,表示“量”; number用于可数名词,表示“数”。例:
  He has contributed a considerable amount of money to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.(amount为名词)
  他捐了一笔为数可观的钱给香港中文大学。
  Our expenditure amounts to fifty thousand dollars a month.(amount为动词)
  我们每月的开支达五万元。
  Every year the Hong Kong Book Fair draws a large number of visitors.(number为名词)
  每一年香港的书展吸引了大量的观众。
  Today more than 30,000 students are enrolled in the polytechnic.
  The full-time students in our department number over 3,500.(number为动词)
  现在理工学院有三万多名学生;我们系里全日制的学生已超过三千五百名。
  Amount除作“数量”、“总额”解外,亦可表示“价值”之意。例:
  Your information is of little amount.(名词)
  你的情报没有什么价值。
  It is unlikely that the forthcoming talks will amount to very much.(动词)
  看来即将举行的会谈不会有多大意义。
  与amount一词搭配使用的字很多,常用的有:respectable~(相当大的数量); trifling~(微不足道的数额); approved~(核准的数额); fixed~(固定的数额); vast~(大量);average~(平均数);aggregate~(总额);required~(所需数); proper~(适量)。
  与number搭配的形容词亦不少,常见的有:round ~(整数);serial~(编号); small~(为数不多);astonishing~(数目惊人); even~(偶数); odd~(奇数); high~(大数);low~(小数); huge(immense)~(巨大的数量);limited~(有限的数目);maximum~(最大量); minimum~(最小量);cardinal~(基数);ordinal~(序数);atomic~(原子序数)。 

  another,the other
  这两个词都表示“另一个”的意思,但涵义和使用场合不同。Another是指不定数目中的“另一个”;the other是指两个人或两样事物中的“另一个”。例:
  Have another piece of cake.
  再吃一块饼吧。
  Please fatch another cup for me.
  请替我另拿一个杯子来。
  That’s quite another matter.
  那完全是另一回事。
  Both my uncles are abroad,one in Paris and the other in New York.
  我的两个叔叔都在国外,一个在巴黎,另一个在纽约。
  One of them is yours;the other is mine.
  一个是你的,另一个是我的。
  值得注意的是,当我们在两样事物中任选一样时,应用one or the other;在三样或三样以上任选一样时,应用 one or other或one or another。
  在someone,somehow,somewhere等字后,只能用other,不能用another。例:
  We’ll have to do it somehow or other.
  在下列短语中,other也不能改作another:
  some kind or other
  some way or other 
  反之,用one时,则用another,例如:one way or another。在only之后,指唯一的就用one或other而不用another。
  This is the only one/other stile to cross before we reach the wood.
  当others和some对比使用在一个句子中,others失去“其他的”意义,而是表示“有的”或“有些”之义,相当于句中前面的some。例如:
  Some like this,others like that.
  有些人喜欢这个,自些人喜欢那个。
  Some cleaned the blackboards,others mopped the floor.
  有些人擦黑板,有些人拖地板。 

  ante-,anti-
  这一对前缀的意义并不相同。ante- 是拉丁前缀,其意为“前面”、“在…之前”或“早于”(in front of or earlier than)。它既可以指地点,也可以指时间。例如:
  anteroom 前厅;前房
  antenuptial 婚前的
  antebellum 战前的
  antedate 先期;早日
  antenatal 出生前的/产前的
  antediluvian 太古的;大洪水前的
  antemeridiem(a.m.) 上午的;午前的
  Anti- 是希腊前缀,意为“反对”、“反面”(opposed to or the reverse of)。它加于名词和形容词之前。例如:
  Anti-Japanese War 抗日战争
  anticlockwise 反时针方向
  anti-militarist 反军国主义者
  anti-aircraft gun 高射炮
  anti-trade wind 反季候风
  antichrist 反基督者或伪基督
  anticlimax 戏剧高潮后的缓和;修辞学里
  的“渐降法”
  Anti-也可以用在医学和化学术语里。例如:
  antidote 解毒药
  antiseptic 防腐剂/消毒药
  antibiotics 抗生素
  anti-freezing liquid 防冻液
  antibody 抗体;抗毒素
  在英语中,以ante-,anti- 作为前缀的词不胜枚举,下面也是一些常用的词:
  antecedent 先行词
  antechamber 前厅
  antecessor 祖先;发起人
  antemortem 死前的
  antibiotics 抗菌素
  anticyclone 逆旋风
  anti-everything 样样都反对的
  antigas kit 防毒装备
  anti-icer 防止结冰的装置
  antifriction 摩擦减少剂
  antiphlogistine 消炎剂,消肿剂
  请注意,anticipate的意思是“预期”、“预料”,这里的anti-并不表示“反对”之意,而是“预先”的意思。因此,我们说,这里的anti-等于ante-,是ante- 的变体(variant)。 

  anyway, any way
  这一对词的意思并不一样。anyway和anyhow同义,但前者多用于美国英语,后者多用于英国英语。anyway 在句中用作副词和连接词,义:“无论如何”、“不管怎样”,相当于 in any case和at any rate。例:
  Anyway,we can try.
  不管怎样,我们可以试试看。
  I will not change my mind anyway.
  无论如何,我不愿意改变我的宗旨。
  “I can give you a lift if you wait”—“No,I’ll walk Thanks,anyway.”
  “如果你等一下,我可以驾我的车送你去。”——“不用了,我步行好了。谢谢你(尽管我不坐你的车)!”。
  Any way的意思是“任何方法”、“任何方式”,way 是名词,any是修饰它的定语。例:
  If there is any way in which you can help me tide over the difficulties,let me know.
  如果你有什么办法帮助我度过难关,请告诉我。
  He could not find the way to the village in any way.
  他怎么也找不到那条通向村庄的马路。
  I cannot manage it any way.
  我无法做到此事。
  在上面第一个例句中,any way是用作条件状语从句的主语;在第二个例句中,any way作介词 in的宾语;在第三个例句中,any way用作状语,修饰谓语动词 cannot manage。 

  as well as,as well
  这一对短语仅差一字之微,意义相近,故很易引起混淆。
  作为习语用作介词时,as well as的涵义是“还有”、“不但…而且…”。值得注意的是,在A as well as B的结构里,语意的重点在 A,不在 B。因此,“He can speak Spanish as well as English.”的译文应该是:“他不但会说英语,而且会讲西班牙语”,决不能译作:“他不但会说西班牙语,而且会讲英语”。如果这样翻译,就是本末倒置了。as well as和 not only… but also…同义,但前者的语意重点和后者的语意重点恰好颠倒。
  如果 as well as用作连词引出比较从句,其义为“和…一样好”。因此,“He speaks Spanish as well as English.”应译作:“他说西班牙语像说英语一样好”。语意的重点依旧在前部,不在后半部。
  请注意 as well as以下的用法:
  She called on you as well as I.
  不但我来看你,她也拜访了你。
  She called on you as well as me.
  她不但拜访了我,也拜访了你。
  在下列句中,as well as表示“像…一样”的涵义:
  She as well as you is an English teacher.
  她像你一样也是英文教师。
  这里的谓语动词用is,不用are,因为句中的主语是she,不是she和you。
  As well是副词短语,其义为“也”,相当于too,它一般放在句末,有时和连词and或but搭配使用。例:
  He is a worker,and a poet as well.
  他是工人,但也是诗人。
  China possesses enormous quantities of coal and is rich in other minerals as well.
  中国拥有大量煤炭,其他的矿藏也很丰富。
  Mr.Liu can speak English,but he can speak Cantonese as well.
  刘先生会说英语,但他也能讲广东话。
      asleep, sleeping
      这两个词都表示“入睡”、“睡着”的意思,但用法各异,主要区别有以下几点:
(一)asleep是表语形容词,在句中放在verb“tobe”之后;它不能放在名词之前,例如我们不可以说:Look at the asleep baby,应把asleep改为sleeping。例:
She was fast asleep;I couldn’t wake her up.她睡得很熟,我喊不醒她。
The old man has fallen asleep.那个老人睡着了。
请注意,be asleep是指“睡着”的状态,如果表示“入睡”的意味,就要用fall asleep。上面两个例句反映了这个区别。
(二)sleeping 是定语形容词,它放在它所修饰的名词之前,如the sleeping baby。如果放在 verb“to be”之后(He is sleeping),sleeping不是形容词,而是动词,is sleeping 是现在进行时。例:
Who is that sleeping man?那个在睡觉的人是谁?
Keep an eye on the sleeping baby.照看好那个在睡觉的婴孩。
Let sleeping dogs lie.莫惹事生非。
sleeping一词有构词能力,它能和另一些词构成复合名词。如:sleeping-bag(睡袋);sleeping-car(卧车);sleeping-pill(安眠药);sleeping-sickness(昏睡症);sleeping-partner((不参与经营的)匿名合伙人)。
Sleeping有一近义词,即sleepy。sleepy既可作表语,又可作定语。作表语时,义:“困倦”、“想睡觉”,用作定语时,义:“贪睡”、“寂静的”。例:
The children fell sleepy;put them to bed.孩子们困了,把他们放到床上睡吧。
John is a sleepyhead.约翰是个贪睡的人。
Here are the outskirts/suburbs of Kowloon.Do you like this sleepy valley?
这里是九龙的郊区。你喜欢这寂静的山谷吗? 

at ease,with ease
这两个介词短语的词义范围和使用场合并不相同。at ease的意思是“安逸地”、“安心地”、“自在地”(feeling confident or relaxed),其反义短语为ill at ease;with ease的意思是“轻松地”、“容易地”(easily or without difficulty)。
就使用场合而言,at ease即可作表语,亦可作状语;with ease 只能用作状语。例:
The old couple are now quite at ease as their son is out of danger.
这一对老夫妻现在可安心了,因为他们的儿子已经脱离危险。
With good social security,the aged can live at ease.有好的社会保障,老年人都过得很安逸。
Her promise of support set my mind at ease.她答应支持我,就使我放心了。
I don’t know why he is ill at ease.我不知道为什么他心神不宁。
They fulfilled the task with ease.他们轻松地完成了任务。
Our football team gained the day with ease.我们的足球队很轻松地就赢了这场球。
Every day we marched twenty miles with ease.每天我们毫不费力地行进二十英里。
注:stand at ease是军事术语,义“稍息”;take one’s ease是“休息”或“无拘无束”。例:
The soldiers are standing at ease now.士兵们现在在立正稍息。
We are now taking our ease.我们现在是优哉游哉。
Please sit and take your ease while enjoying a cup of coffee.请坐下来舒舒服服地喝杯咖啡。 

at heart,by heart
这一组短语的涵义也各不相同。
At heart 的意思是“在心里”、“心底里”或“本质上”(from the heart,from the bottom of one’s heart or essentially)。by heart 的意思是“背诵”、“熟记”(by rote;to learn so well that one can remember it perfectly)。请看下面例句:
That socialite is a rascal at heart.那个知名人士实质上是个坏蛋。
A councillor should have the collective interest of society at heart.议员应当关心大众的利益。
At heart,Mr.Lin does not approve your proposal.林先生的心里并不赞同你的建议。
Mr.Wang looks stem,but he is kind at heart.王先生看来严肃,但买质上他很仁慈。
I know this poem by heart.我熟读/我能背诵这首诗。
I don’t see the point of learning by heart all the dates in the history book!
我真不明白为什么要把历史书里所有的日期都要记下来!
请注意下列短语的意思:(跟前例 have something at heart相近)
in one’s heart of hearts 在内心深处
take something to heart 认真考虑/关注某事
set one’s heart on something 决心做/得到某事/物
cut(or touch)sb to the heart 触及某人痛处
one’s heart is in something 把整个心放在某事上 

at last,at length
这一对短语都有“终于”、“最后”的意思,但涵义和使用场合有所不同。
At length 这个词组共有三个意义: (1)长时间地。例如:He spoke at(great)length.(2)详细地。例如:They treated the subject at length.(3)终于;最后。例:After flying for ten hours,they got to San Francisco at length.
作第三种意义使用时,at length与at last同义,但它们的内涵却有所不同。当人们做某事时,遇到了困难,经过奋斗,最后得以完成,在这种场合,我们用at last。如果在做的过程中,经历了很长的时间才得以完成,这时候,不论困难大小,都可用at length表示。为此,我们说,at last强调的是“经过努力奋斗”;at length 强调的是“经历很长的时间”。通过下列例句的对比,不难看出它们之间的区别:
Before they climbed down the side of the cliff,they met with many obstacles,but they surmounted them at last.从悬崖的侧面爬下来之前,他们遇到了许多障碍,但终于把它们克服了。
In spite of every obstacle,they have at last arrived at the destination.
尽管障碍很多,他们终于到达了目的地。
After a voyage of five months,they at length arrived safe and sound.经过五个月的航行,他们终于安全抵达。
请注意,用length构成的介词短语很多,常见的有:
Hong Kong Exhibition Centre measures 200 metres in length.香港展览中心长达二百公尺。
They discussed this problem at great length.他们非常详细地讨论了这个问题。
Yesterday I had my picture taken at the studio at full length.昨天我在照相馆拍了一张全身照。
They travelled through the length and breadth of the country.他们走遍全国。 

at(the)least,not(in)the least
这一对短语的涵义有很大的差异。
At least的意思是“至少”(指数量或程度上)也可解作“反正就是…”。它与 at the least,at the very least同义,可互换使用,但后两者有强调意味,远不及前者用得普遍。
下面请看例句:
The total enrolment of the university in the academic year 1991-1992 was at least 10,000,including undergraduate and postgraduate students.
在1991-1992学年期间,该大学至少有一万名大学生,包括本科大学生和研究主。
Even if you cannot help him,you can give him encouragement at least.就算你未能帮助他,至少你可以鼓励他。
Whether you like it or not,at the very least,this is reality.不管你是否喜欢,反正这是个现实。
Not the least 的意思是“毫不”、“一点也不”(by no means),也可写作 not in the least。但后者一般不用作定语。现今,后者更常见。
Are you cold?—Not(in)the least.你冷吗?—一点也不冷。
Spanish has not the least interest for them.(作定语,没有in)他们刘西班牙语毫不感兴趣。
(此句亦可改写为:They do not take the least interest in Spanish)
You shouldn’t relax your vigilance(in)the least.你们不能丝毫放松警惕。
另一方面,not least义为“尤其是,特别是”:
That film caused public revulsion, not least among the education circles.
该电影引起公愤,特别是教育界的深恶。
短语 least of all的涵义是“最不”。例:That’s the thing I like least of all.(这是我最不喜欢的东西)。 

at the end of,by the end of
这一对短语的意思都是“在…的末了”、“在…的一端”,意义上相似,但使用场合有所不同。
一般说来,at the end of用于表示具体事物或场所的场合,它也可以用来表示比喻意。例:
The school is situated at the end of the street.该校位于这条街的尽头。
We’ll have an exam in English at the end of January.一月底我们要参加英语考试
They were at the end of their patience.他们忍无可忍。
He is at the end of his wits.他智穷才尽,束手无策。
By the end of用于表示时间的场合,往往含有“不迟于”的意味。值得注意的是,at the end of亦可用于表示时间的场合(见上面第二个例句),但其义和by the end of有所不同。试对比下面两例:
at the end of January一月底(指一月份的最后一天)
by the end of January一月底之前(指一月份结束前的几天)
We are to complete the task by the end of the year.年底之前我们必须完成此项任务。
Their communication is at an end.他们的交往到此为止。
短语 in the end的涵义是“终于”、“最后”,其义相当于 at last。例:
I’m sure everything will turn out satisfactory in the end.我确信,最后一切都会令人满意的。
In the end things will mend.船到桥头自会直。 

await,wait
这两个词都是动词,又都有“期待”、“等候”之意,但用法有所不同,它们的区别如下:
(一)await是及物动词,后面直接接宾语;wait虽然也可用作及物动词,但在现代英语中,一般作不及物动词用,与for,to,till,until等词连用。
(二)await的宾语大都是抽象名词,如:decision,reply,arrival,announcement,return等;wait for的宾语一般是人或事物。
The judge awaits the coroner’s inquest before giving a verdict.法官在作裁决前等待验尸官的调查。
I have been waiting for her for an hour at the bus stop.我在公共车站等候她已一小时了。
(三)await之后接动名词;wait之后接动词不定式。例如:
We shall await hearing further from them.
We shall wait to hear further from them.我们在静候他们进一步的消息。
(四)await多用于书面语;wait 多用于口语。如:
This plan awaits the approval of the board of directors.这项计划有待董事局批准。
I have been waiting here for a long time.我已在这里等了好久了。
(五)wait 除作动词外,还可用作名词。例:
I had a long wait for the train.我等火车等了好久。
They pursue a policy of wait and see.他们采取等待和观望的政策。
如上所述,wait在特定情况下也可以用作及物动词,例如:to wait your turn;to wait one’s opportunity。
请注意下列句子中await和wait的使用场合:
We await (or wait for)your reply.
We wait for(不能用await)you to reply.
I shall wait to bring her home.(不能用await)
I await (or wait for)your ruling on the matter with some impatience.
当await的主语是没有生命的事物而宾语是人时,await表示 be in store或lie in wait for之意。如:
On arriving at the guest house,he found a telegram awaiting him.
Little did he realize what a surprise awaited him at home.
A hearty welcome will await you.
请注意,Time and tide wait(s)for no man(岁月不待人)的wait既可以加s,亦可不加s。 

award,reward
这两个词都可以用作名词和动词,作名词时,意义相近,但不是同义词。
作名词时,award的意思是“奖品”、“奖金”,其义与prize近似,两者都指因为作出杰出成就而受奖。例:
The Olympic winner received a gold medal as an award.
He won the second award of $ 2,000.
而reward作名词时,其意为“赏金”、“酬金”或一些非金钱的报酬。例:
We will offer a reward of ten thousand dollars for information about the case.
如果有人提供有关案件的情报,我们愿意出一万元赏金。
We don’t expect substantial rewards.我们并不期望得到优厚的报酬。
用作动词时,award的意思是“授与”、“颁发”、“判给”;reward则表示“报答”、“酬谢”之意。例:
He was awarded the first prize for Outstanding Industrial Design.他获杰出工业设计一等奖。
We judge awarded him twenty thousand dollars as damages.法官判给他二万元作为赔偿费。
You should reward them according to their deserts.你应该对他们论功行赏。
Is that how you reward me for my help?你就是这样来报答我给你的帮助吗?
reward也可以用于比喻意。例:
I would feel amply rewarded if my book—A Study of English Twins—could be of some help to the readers.
如果我的书《英语学生词语之研究》对读者有所帮助的话,我就感到心满意足了。 

be ashamed for,be ashamed of
这一对形容词短语的涵义并不相同。
To be ashamed for 的意思是“为…(一般指外在的人或事物,如他人)而感到羞耻”;to be ashamed of的意思是“由于…(一般指内在的人或事物,如自己)而感到羞耻”。例:
I’m ashamed for you.我为你感到羞耻。
I’m ashamed of you.我以你为耻。
I felt ashamed for the callousness of the government in tackling land speculation.
对于政府处理地产投机态度麻木不仁,我引以为耻。
Are you ashamed of doing such a thing?你做这样的事感到羞耻吗?
其他因搭配介词不同而含义及用法改变的词语有:
He is considerate of other people’s feelings.他能体谅别人的感情。
He is considerate to old people.他对老年人很体贴。
I’m anxious for a change.我渴望改变一下环境。
I’m anxious about his health.我为他的健康而担忧。
She did it of herself.她自愿去做此事。
She did it by herself.她独立去做此事。
They are suffering for their country.他们正在为国受苦。
They are suffering from the war.他们由于战争而在受难。 

be going to,will
Be going to在表示“将要”的意味时,很容易和will混淆不清。
试看下面的对话:
A:The detergent has been used up.洗洁精已用光了。
B:I’m going to get some today.C:I’ll get some today.
乍然看来,乙和丙的答话的意思是一样的,都是:“今天我要去买些”,其实不然。乙用 am going to get回答甲,其言外之意是:“在甲讲洗洁精用完这句话之前,他早已心中有数,并且早就有去买洗洁精的打算”。丙用will get来回答,表示:“事前并不知道洗洁精已用完,原先也没有打算去买,直等到甲讲了之后,他才决定去买”。
通过上面的例句,我们可以知道下列对话中乙、丙的回答的不同涵义了:
A:Where is my dictionary?
B:I’m going to get it for you.
C:I’ll get it for you.
此外,be going to和will还有下列的区别:
(一)be going to表示即将发生的动作;will表示将来发生的事情,不一定是最近期间之事。例:
She told him she was going to quit the job.她告诉他,她即将辞职不干。
She will go to Australia next year.她明年要去澳洲。
(二) be going to可以用以表示某人打算做某事;will则用以叙述某件将要发生之事。前者含有主观意愿;后者只是客观的叙述。例:
He is not going to be made a scapegoat.他不会去做替罪羊。
He will not become a scapegoat.他不会做替罪羊。
(三)在表示按计划或安排要发生的动作时,可以用be going to;will只表示单纯的将来,并无按规定或计划之意。例:
The railway is going to be open on October 1.这条铁路将于十月一日通车。
This railway will be electrified when there is a need.有需要时,这条铁路将改为电气化。 

Be off,to be off
这两个短语的涵义并不相同。
Be off!的意思是“走开!”、“滚开!”,相当于英语的Be gone!或Get away!例:
Be off! you wretch!滚开!你这个卑鄙的家伙!
Be off! or I’ll call the police.你出去,否则我要报警啦。
Be off!亦可写作 Be off with you!或 Off with you!这三种形式可互换使用。
To be off的涵义较多,有“离去”、“出发”、“脱离”、“暂停”、“中断”、“取消”等义。例:
I must be off.(=I must leave now.)我该走了。
We are off!(=Off we go!)我们出发了!
值得注意的是,We are off!和Off we go!可根据不同的场合和上下文,表达不同的时间概念。它们能表示We have started、We are starting和We are about to start等义。同样,They are off to Macau根据不同的场合,可分别译作:“他们已去澳门”、“他们正在动身去澳门”和“他们将要去澳门”。
Her shoes are off!她把鞋脱了!
The electricity(water or gas)is off!断电(水或煤气)啦!
Their engagement is off.他们的婚约取消了。
除上列各义外,to be off还可用以表述下列意思:
We are off every Wednesday.我们每星期三休息。
She sounds off on the telephone.谈电话时她有点不客气/不自然/不对劲。
All books have 20% off.所有的书籍均八折出售。
This fish is slightly off.这鱼有点不新鲜。
The motor is off.  马达停了。
To be off 还可用在某些固定的说法里。如:
to be off with the old love and on with the new(另找新欢) 

believe,believe in
这一对词语都表示“相信不疑”的意思,但词意有细微的区别。
Believe表示“相信”、“信以为真”(to accept as true)之意,它是及物动词,其后直接跟宾语。例:
Do you believe his reports?你相信他的报告吗?
I could hardly believe my eyes.我几乎不能相信自己的眼睛。
In ancient times it was believed that the earth was flat.古时候,人们认为地球是扁平的。
Believe in则表示“信仰”、“信任”(to have faith in somebody or something)之意。其后的常用搭配语为:有关宗教、理论、原则、概念及可信任之人,如:a religion、ghosts、 fairies、 a theory、 a friend等词;例中的believe为不及物动词。如:
We do not believe in ghosts.我们不信鬼神。
He believes in getting plenty of exercise.他相信多锻炼身体就会有好处。
In the days of the French Revolution,people believed in liberty,equality and fraternity.
法国大革命时代的人们信奉自由、平等及博爱。
现在试比较下列两语的不同涵义:
I believe him.(=I believe what he says)我相信他(的话)。
I believe in him.(=I trust him )我相信他是一个可以信得过的人。(即:我信任他)
在英美人的谈话中,经常可以听到这么一句口头禅——Believe me:这是一个用以表示希望对方相信自己谈话的口头语,它相当于I bet或 Take my word for it。例:
Believe me,you will get well very soon.你一定会很快就恢复健康的。
Believe me 可以根据不同的场合,译作“真的”、“我不骗你”、“一定会”或“请相信”。 

borrow,lend
这一对动词都是“借”、“借用”的意思,但使用场合不同。
Borrow是“借他人的东西以暂时使用”,表示“从(问)…借”之意,故译“借入”;其搭配介词为from。例:
May I borrow your car?我可以借你的汽车用一下吗?
Did you borrow money from him ?你问他借过钱吗?
Some people are good at borrowing but had at giving back.有些人很会借东西,但很少归还。
Japanese has borrowed heavily from Chinese.日语从汉语借用了大量的词汇。
Lend是“将自己的东西暂时借给别人使用”,表示“借给……”之意,故译“借出”;其搭配介词为to。例:
Will you lend me your car?你可否把汽车借给我?
I’m sorry.I’ve already lent my car to Mr.Wang.对不起,我已经把我的汽车借给王先生了。
在某些场合下,“lend…to”可以表示“给予”、“赋予”之意。例:
A fireplace lends coziness to a room.壁炉给房间带来温暖舒适之感。
A becoming dress lends charm to a lady.合身的服装会给女士增添魅力。
The rural environment lent itself to the restoration of his health.
乡村的环境有助于他恢复健康。
Loan与lend同义,前者大都用于美国,后者大多用于英国:
He loaned/lend me all the antiques for exhibition.他借给我全部古董作为展览之用。
Loan亦可用作名词,如:make a loan(借出);pay off(repay)a loan(偿清或偿还借款)。例:
He obtained cheap loans from the bank.他从银行获得低息贷款。 

breath,breathe
这两个词都是表示“呼吸”的意思,但词性和读音不同。 breath/breI是名词; breathe/briJ/是动词。初学英语的人容易将breathe的e丢掉,以致与breath混淆不清。
请看下面例句:
After we had climbed to the top of the hill,we stopped to gather breath.我们爬到山顶后便停下来歇口气。
Only in the countryside can we have a breath of fresh air.只有在郊野我们才能呼吸到新鲜的空气。
He has run himself out of breath.他跑得上气不接下气。
The old lady breathed her last this morning.老太太今天早上断气了。
In an attack of asthma,she breathed hard.哮喘发作,她感到呼吸困难。
It’s healthy to breathe deeply in the morning早上作深呼吸对身体有益。
请注意,在下列例句内,breathe和 take a breath不能互换使用,因为它们表达的涵义有所不同:
We breathe in order to live.为了生存,我们要呼吸。
We paused to take a breath我们停下来喘了一口气。 

bring,take,carry,fetch
这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用场合各不相同。
Bring作“带来”、“拿来”解; take是bring的对语,作“带去”、“拿去”解。例:
Next year you may bring your family over from England.明年你可以把你的家属从英国带来。
Why don’t you bring your girl friend to the party?你为什么不把你的女友带来参加宴会?
Next time don’t forget to brig me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了把一份您的作品带给我。
Please take these books to the library for me.请把这些书替我带到图书馆去。
Take the box away,please.请把盒子拿走。
Carry表示“运载”、“携带”之意,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至用头;fetch则表示“去拿来”(go and bring)的意思。例:
They are carrying some paintings to the art gallery.他们正在把一些画带到艺术馆去。
This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.这辆巴士规定乘载一百人。
Please fetch me the documents in that room.请到那间房间去把那些文件拿来给我。
Please wait a minute.He’s just gone out to fetch some water.请等一会儿。他刚出去打水。
现将bring,take和fetch用在一个句中,以便区别:
Take that box and bring it with you,or if it is too heavy for you tocarry it,I’ll send Joe to fetch it.
请注意,bring之后可以接不定式和动名词,如:
You will never bring me to admit it.或 You will never bring me to admitting it.
在这种场合下,英美人用不定式的居多。bring在这两句中表示 cause someone to do something之意(使某人做某事)。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional(8)

相似词语辨析

able, capable

  这一对词都是形容词,又都含有“能够”、“能干”之意,但涵义和使用场合有所不同,大致有如下几点区别:

  (一)在用作定语表示“能干的”意味时,able所描述的范围较概括,capable所描述的范围较专注,因为前者指某人聪明能干,有多才多艺的概括涵义;后者仅指具有应付某一特指工作要求的能力。例:

  She is an able teacher

  她是个能干的教师。

  She is a capable teacher.

  她是个能胜任工作的教师。

  (二)able指“能够”,是一时之现象;capable常用以指“能力”,是经常的现象。如:

  I shall not be able to come to the office tomorrow.

  明天我不能到办公室来(指由于某种原因而暂时不能来)。

  She is incapable of manual labour.

  她不能从事体力劳动(指由于某种长期或经常的原因,例如患病而不能劳动)。

  (三)指某人能作某事时,able之后接动词不定式,capable之后接介词of。例如:

  We are able to get back to town before dark.

  我们能够天黑之前赶回市区。

  They are not capable of doing the work.

  他们没有能力做这件工作。

  (四)capable除表示“有能力的”意味外,还可用以表示“有可能的”涵义,able则没有这个用法。如:

  The situation is capable of improvement.

  此情况有可能好转。

  That oil tanker is capable of being restored.

  那艘油轮有可能修好。

  请注意,下列句中的able是用错了,应改为capable:

  This book is able to be translated.(错)

  This book is capable of being translated.(对)

  That law is able to be evaded.(错)

  That law is capable of being evaded.(对)

  (五) able 一般用作正面意义,指好人好事;capable 则是中性词,既可指好事,亦可指坏事,例如在下例中,capable of anything是表示“任何坏事都做得出来”之意:

  That guy is capable of anything!

  那家伙什么勾当都会干得出来!

  (六) able的反义词是unable;capable的反义词是incapable。另一点值得注意的是,able的名词是 ability,义:“能力”(the power to do);capable的名词是capability 或 capacity,前者义:“具有从事某事的能力”;后者义:“容量”或“受容力”。需要在此指出的是,ability是可以通过练习或锻炼获得的,而capability则是固有的能力,它与练习或锻炼无关。通过下列例句的对比,我们不难区分其义蕴:

  I do not doubt his ability to do the work.

  He has the capability to benefit from university education.

  第一句的ability是指通过训练或工作磨炼而获得的“能力”;第二句的capability是指天赋之才,与后天无关。

  according as,according to

  这两个词组虽然相似,但它们的结构和使用场合并不相同。according to表示“根据”、“按照”;而according as表示“视乎”,有depending及according to whether的意味。

  According as是连词词组,其后接从句;according to 是介词短语,其后接名词。例:

  The thermometer rises or falls according to the high or low temperature.

  寒暑表根据气温的高低而升降。

  They will be praised or blamed according as their work is good or bad.

  给他们的赏罚将视乎他们工作的好坏来决定。

  应当在此指出,在现代英语中,according as的句型结构已很少有人使用,正如 Bergen Evans和 Cornelia Evans在A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage 中指出的那样:“This construction is not often heard today”。

  下面是according to的例句:

  According to the weather report,we shall have cold weather next week.

  根据天气报告,下星期天气将要转冷。

  You should act according to circumstances.你们要随机应变。

  According to有个同义短语,即 in accordance with,但它们的涵义有细微的区别,前者强调“根据…所言”,后者则强调“与…要一致”。另外 in accordance with多用于正式场合,例如表示与一些原则、规律一致。例:

  According to police report,five luxury cars were stolen in Kowloon yesterday.

  根据警方报告,昨天在九龙有五辆豪华汽车失窃。

  We must proceed in accordance with the rules.

  我们必须按照规章办事。

  That sentence is not in accordance with the rules of grammar.

  那个句子不符合语法规则。

  请注意,in accordance with 既可引导 adverbial phrase,又可引导adjectival phrase作verb“to be”的补语(见上面 in accordance with的第一和第二个例句);according to则不能。例如,我们不能说:

  The news is according to Hong Kong"s broadcasting station.(错)

  另一点需要补充说明的是,in accord with 和 in accordance with同义,它们可以互换使用,但前者远不及后者用得普遍。英国学者F.T.Wood认为,我们最好在强凋“与…一致”(agreement)的时候,用in accord with;在强调“服从”或“遵照执行”(obeying or following)的涵义时,用 in accordance with。例如:

  What he has done is not in accord with your instructions.

  In accordance with your instructions we have suspended work on the heating apparatus.

  across, cross

  这两个词都是表示“横越”、“渡过”之意,在拼写上仅差一字之微,故很易混淆。它们的区别在于词性和使用场合有所不同。across是介词;cross是动词。

  下面请看例句:

  My house is across the harbour,in the vicinity of the Kowloon Park.

  我的家在海港的对岸,九龙公园附近。

  They live across the Central Plaza.

  他们住在中央广场的对面。

  Everyone shouts“kill it!”when a rat is seen to run across the street.

  老鼠过街,人人喊打。

  He has crossed the border into another territory.

  他已越过边界进入别国的领土。

  Many steel arch bridges cross the Mississippi in its lower reaches.

  在密西西比河的下游许多拱形铁侨横跨河面。

  They have crossed over to Japan.

  他们已东渡去日本了。

  coss除作动词外,亦可作名词。作名词时,有较强的构词能力,它所构成的词的某些词义和用法是值得注意的。例如crossroad是“交叉路”或“横马路”,而crossroads却是“十字路”或“十字路口”,它的前面可以用a,但-s不能丢掉。如:

  The accident took place at a crossroads.

  车祸发生在十字路口。

  They drive across the plain by way of a crossroad leading to the highway.

  他们沿着一条通往公路的交叉路驾车横过平原。

  cross-reference是“前后参照”、“互见条目”的意思,专指同一书刊中前后互相参阅的说明。例:

  In this book cross-references are shown in capital letters.

  在本书中,前后参照的互见条目用大写字母表示。

  crossing是“渡口”、“横道线”或“(铁路与公路的)交叉点”。如:

  The Star Ferry Pier is a ferry crossing in central.

  天星码头是在中环的一个渡口。

  All care should stoP at the zebra crossing.

  所有车辆都要在斑马线前停下。

  A bus ran into a train at the level/grade crossing.

  一辆公共汽车在平交点与火车相撞。

  act as,act like

  乍然看来,act as和 act like是两个同义短语,在涵义上无甚区别可言,其实不然。

  Act as的意思是“充当”、“担任”,相当于 serve as,可与人或物词如:doctor、director、interpreter、guide、coach、 teacher、go-between、furniture、tools等字搭配使用。as是连词,引导一个省略了谓语的状语从句。例:

  This herb can act as an antidote against snakebite.

  这种药草可以用作蛇咬的解毒药。

  Last summer she acted as a guide for tourists.

  去年夏天,她担任旅游向导。

  This coin may act as a screwdriver.

  这枚硬币可以充当螺丝起子用。

  Mr.Liu acted as group leader while Mr.Zhang was ill.

  张先生生病时,刘先生任组长。

  请注意,有时候,act for与act as的意义颇相近,但它们在表示概念方面互不相同。act as是“(临时)充当”或“起…的作用”; act for则表示“代理”的涵义。请比较下一句和前述句:

  Mr.Liu acted for Mr.Zhang while,the latter was ill.

  张先生患病期间,刘先生代理他的工作。

  Act like的意思是“行为像”、“举动像”,相当于英语的 to act in the manner of,它常与人或动物名词连用。like是介词,其后接宾语。例:

  That child acts like a grown-up.

  那个孩子的举动像成年人一样。

  Don"t act like a fool!

  别像傻瓜一般!

  His refusal of our offer acted like a wet blanket.

  他拒绝了我们的建议,真使我们扫兴。

  (注:a wet blanket 作“令人扫兴的事或人”。)

  admit,admit of

  一般说来,admit表示“许入”、“进入”(allow somebody or something to enter)或“承认”(acknowledge)的意义;admit of则表示“容许”(allow of)或“容有”(leave room for)之意。例如:

  This ticket admits one person only.

  此券只准一人入场。

  I admitted him to the lecture.

  我准许他入内听讲。

  He has admitted the fact.

  他已承认此事。

  This matter admits of no delay.

  此事刻不容缓。

  This word admits of several interpretations.

  这个词可作几种解释。

  Admit的主语既可以是物,也可以是人,而admit of 的主语只可以是没有生命的事物。例如,我们不能说: I can"t admit of your doing it,而只能说:I can"t allow you to do it。又如,不可以说:He can admit of no question,而应该说:His veracity admits of no question(他的诚信是勿容置疑的)。

  值得注意的是,admittance和admission都是admit 的名词,它们都有“准入”之意,但使用场合不同。一般说来,admittance用于直义,即指准许某人进入某一场所;admission则大都用于比喻意,指准许进入的权利、入场费或入会费而言。因此,“入场券”译作admission ticket,不译作admittance ticket。“如非公事,不得擅进(非请勿进)”则译作 No admittance except on business。现将这两个词作一比较:

  They refused him admittance when he arrived.

  他抵达时他们拒绝他入场。

  They granted him admission.

  他门准许他入会。

  此外,admit用作解“承认”时,之后可以接动名词或从句,但不能接动词不定式。例如: He admits having seen the book或 He admits that he saw the book。但不可以说:He admits to have seen the book。

  在现代英语中,有时我们可以看到 admit to这么一个短语,其义相当于confess to (承认),例如:

  In spit of all the evidence against her,she refused to admit to the crime.

  虽然所有证据都对她不利,但是她拒绝承认犯了罪。

  有些西方学者认为,admit to 并不是地道的英语,最好避免使用。

  与之类似区别的词语有 allow和allow of。前者的意思是“许可”(permit);后者的意思是“容有…余地”(leave room for)。它们的用法与 admit和 admit of相同。

  advance, advancement

  Advance用作名词时,很易和另一名词advancement 混淆不清,因为这两个词都有“前进”、“进步”和“进展”之意。它们的区别如下:

  一般说来,advance含有自动的意味,advancement 则含有被动的意味。例如:advance of science是“科学的进步”; advancement of science则是“科学的被人推进”。从下列两个例句,我们可以辨别出它们的区别:

  Discovering a cure for AIDS would be a major medical advance.

  发现治疗艾滋病的方法将是医学上的一大进展。

  We have made a program for the advancement of science.

  我们已制定了一个发展科学的规划。

  通过上列例句的对比,我们可以联想到 advance in rank 和 advancement in rank;advance in industy和advancement in industry;advance in society和advancement in society等语的涵义区别。

  在表示“行军”或“向…行进”的意义时,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。例:

  They have done their best to resist the advance of the enemy.

  他们已尽力阻挡敌人向前推进。

  Road blocks were set up to obstruct the advance of the demonstrators.

  设置路障是要阻止示威人士前进。

  在某些固定的词组里,例如 in advance、in advance of、be on the advance,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。如:

  Please pay the bill in advance.

  请先付账。

  The plane reached Hong Kong ten minutes in advance of its scheduled time.

  飞机比预定的时间提早了十分钟到达香港。

  Recently the new stocks are on the advance.

  最近新股看涨。

  advance一字除用作名词和动词(如 In recent days prices advanced rapidly。近日来,价格猛涨)之外,亦可用作形容词。作形容词时,其意为“预先的”、“在前的”。如:advance notice(预先通知);advance booking (预订/预售(票));advance payment(预先付款);advance copy((发行前的)新书样本); advance party of soldiers(先头部队)。

  值得注意的是,advanced也可用作形容词,但其意为“先进的”、“高级的”。如:advanced ideas(进步的思想);advanced algebra(高等代数);advanced courses(高级课程)。

  after, behind

  After用作介词时,很易和另一介词behind混淆不清,因为它们都表示“在…之后”的意思。它们的区别有以下几点:

  (一)一般说来,after指时间的先后次序,意为“在…之后”(later in time than); behind指位置的前后,意为“在…后面”(in the rear of)。例如:

  I shall be free after ten o"clock.

  十点之后我有空。

  The national stadium is located behind the hill.

  国家运动场在山岗的后面。

  (二)after常用以指顺序,意为“跟在…之后”、“接着”、“接连”(in succession or next to in order); behind 则表示“隐匿在后”、“背着”或“遗留在后”之意。如:

  After you,please!

  您先请!(出门或进门时的客套用语)

  You should put the direct object after the indirect object.

  你应该把直接宾语放在间接宾语之后。

  The policemen are searching for the robbers door after door.

  警察正在挨家挨户地搜查劫匪。

  Day after day and year after year…

  日复一日,年复一年……。

  Don"t stand behind the door.

  不要躲在门背后。

  Don"t speak evil of a man behind his back.

  不要在背后说人坏话。

  Who is behind the scenes?

  谁是幕后人?

  Those smugglers ran away and left no trace behind them.

  那些走私客逃走时没有留下任何痕迹。

  (三)在某些场合下,after和behind可以互换使用,但涵义有所不同。如:

  Shut the door after you.(1)

  Shut the door behind you.(2)

  (1)句的意思是“随手关门”,after含有离开与关门两个动作的先后的意味;(2)句的意思是“关上你背后的门”,behind表示门的静止状态的意味,正因为如此,我们通常说:Don"t stand behind the door,而不说:Don"t stand after the door。

  值得注意的是,在另一些场合下,after和behind 在互换使用后,其意并无区别可言。如:

  John came in after Alice.

  John came in behind Alice.

  The dog ran after its master.

  The dog ran behind its master.

  Behind除作介词外,尚可用作副词、名词和形容词; after除作介词外,还可用作副词、连词和形容词,由于不属本书探讨范围之内,这里就不赘述。

  alive, living

  这两个词都表示“活着的”、“有生命的”(having life)意思,词义相同,但用法有所不同。

  Alive是表语形容词,放在verb“to be”之后,不能放在它所说明的名词之前。例如我们只可以说 The old man is still alive。

  Living既可用作表语形容词,又可用作定语形容词,故可放在它所修饰的名词之前。

  我们既可以说:

  English is a living language.

  也可以说:

  Is his father still living?

  就使用场合而言,alive大都用于人,有时用作比喻或强调时也用于物。例如:

  Given the chance to sing on stage,he is very much alive.

  有机会在台上唱歌,他显得很活跃。

  The bazaar was all alive by the time we arrived.

  我们到达时,墟市非常热闹。

  Living则人物共用(请参阅上面两例)。

  就词性而言,alive只能用作形容词,不能作名词;living既可作形容词,又可作名词。例:

  Many people were burnt alive in the conflagration that happened in a multi-storeyed building.

  在一幢多层大厦内发生的大火中,很多人被活活烧死。

  Our living standards are rising steadily.

  我们的生活水平在不断提高。

  Those who enjoy a good living seldom understand the suffering of the poor.

  过着美好生活的人一般都不明白穷人所受之苦。

  在某些场合下,living和alive表示的涵义并不相同,尽管它们都用作表语。例如:

  At last we found him in a trap in the forest,still living but not alive.

  通过对比,可以看出,living之意是“活的”;alive 之意是“有气息的”。这里的not alive表示人虽然还活着,但已“气息奄奄”、“没有生气”了。

  Alive有时尚可表示“alert”“感觉到的”、“敏感的”涵义。如:

  He is alive to the imminent danger.

  他感觉到那迫在眉睫的危险。

  alone, lone

  这一对词都有“单独”、“孤单”(having no other person or thing nearby)之意,但用法有所不同。

  就词性而言,alone既可作形容词,又可作副词;而lone只能作形容词,不能作副词。例如:

  He is alone.(adj.)

  He live alone.(adv.)

  A lone bird flew past.(adj.)

  用作形容词时,alone只能作表语;而lone一般只能作定语。例:

  I am alone.(不能说: I am an alone person)

  我独居。

  She wants to make a lone flight.

  她想单独飞行。

  在现代英语里,alone和lone跟lonely涵义不同,前二者只表示“单独”,没有感情色彩,但后者则表示“孤单、寂寞”的感受。例:

  Though I was alone in Hong Kong,I did not feel lonely.

  虽然我独居香港,但是我并不感到寂寞。

  The lone traveller led a lonely life.

  那独行客过着寂寞的人生。

  关于alone一词,在使用时要注意几点:

  (一)alone是表语形容词,因此,我们不能说:very alone,只可以说much alone或very much alone。

  (二)alone虽然作“单独”、“孤单”解,但它并不一定用于表示贬义的场合,因为有些人生来就喜欢“孤单”和“清静”,例如下句中的alone就是反映这个涵义:

  Leave me alone.

  不要打扰我。

  (三)alone用在名词或代词之后可以表示“唯有”、“唯独”之意。例:

  Jackson alone knows what happened.

  唯有杰克逊一个人知道出了什么事。

  You alone can help me in this task.

  只有你才能在这件事中帮助我。

  (四)let alone是固定词组,其义为“更不用说”、“不在话下”。例:

  He can speak Spanish,let alone English.

  他能说西班牙文,英语就更不在话下了。

  He can"t drive a car,let alone a truck.

  他连小汽车都不会开,更不用说开卡车了。

  由例句可见,let alone与to say nothing of同义,它们可互换使用。

  also, too

  这两个词都是副词,又都表示“也是”的意思,但在修辞意味和使用场合上有所不同。它们的区别如下:

  (一)一般说来,also用于比较正式(formal)的场合,语气比too庄重; too是惯熟(familiar)的用语,使用范围较广。

  (二)also在句中的位置要紧靠动词; too在句中的位置比较灵活,有时插入句中,前后用逗号分开,有时放在句末。

  (三)too只能用在肯定句中,不可用于否定句内。在否定句中,只能用either;also则可以用在否定句中。

  下面请看例句:

  The Hong Kong Chief Executive also heads the university as Chancellor.

  香港行政长官也以(大学)校监身份领导大学。

  Reading books is learning,but application is also learning and the more important form of learning.

  读书是学习,买践也是学习,而且是更重要的学习。

  We have not heard such a thing.Also,we have never seen such a scene.

  我们没有听见过这种事情,我们也从来没有见过这种场面。

  请注意,一般说来,also在句中的位置应紧靠动词,但有时为了强调其意,也可以将它放在句首或句末。

  Here,too,the colon must be followed by a dash.

  这里也一样,应当在冒号之后加破折号。

  Mary,too,can play the piano.

  玛丽也会弹钢琴。

  Could you speak Japanese?—Yes,and Spanish too.

  您会说日语吗?——会的,还会说西班牙语哩。

  Also虽然和too同义,但前者大都用于书面语,后者大都用于口语。例:

  The lady washed the children and also gave them dinner.(书面语)

  The lady washed the children and gave them dinner too.(口语)

  在口语中,too还可以用 as well代替。

  有时候,also在句中的位置不同,句子的涵义也会跟着变化。例:

  John is also concerned in this matter.(1)

  John also is concerned in this matter.(2)

  John is concerned in this matter also.(3)

  (1)句的涵义是:John is concerned in this matter as well as that one.

  (2)句的涵义是:John is concerned in this matter,just as somebody else is.

  (3)句的涵义是:This matter is the last of many that have been mentioned.

  amount, number

  这一对词都能用作名词和动词,又都表示“数目”、“总数”之意,故很易混淆。

  它们之间的区别是,amount用于不可数名词,表示“量”; number用于可数名词,表示“数”。例:

  He has contributed a considerable amount of money to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.(amount为名词)

  他捐了一笔为数可观的钱给香港中文大学。

  Our expenditure amounts to fifty thousand dollars a month.(amount为动词)

  我们每月的开支达五万元。

  Every year the Hong Kong Book Fair draws a large number of visitors.(number为名词)

  每一年香港的书展吸引了大量的观众。

  Today more than 30,000 students are enrolled in the polytechnic.

  The full-time students in our department number over 3,500.(number为动词)

  现在理工学院有三万多名学生;我们系里全日制的学生已超过三千五百名。

  Amount除作“数量”、“总额”解外,亦可表示“价值”之意。例:

  Your information is of little amount.(名词)

  你的情报没有什么价值。

  It is unlikely that the forthcoming talks will amount to very much.(动词)

  看来即将举行的会谈不会有多大意义。

  与amount一词搭配使用的字很多,常用的有:respectable~(相当大的数量); trifling~(微不足道的数额); approved~(核准的数额); fixed~(固定的数额); vast~(大量);average~(平均数);aggregate~(总额);required~(所需数); proper~(适量)。

  与number搭配的形容词亦不少,常见的有:round ~(整数);serial~(编号); small~(为数不多);astonishing~(数目惊人); even~(偶数); odd~(奇数); high~(大数);low~(小数); huge(immense)~(巨大的数量);limited~(有限的数目);maximum~(最大量); minimum~(最小量);cardinal~(基数);ordinal~(序数);atomic~(原子序数)。

  another,the other

  这两个词都表示“另一个”的意思,但涵义和使用场合不同。Another是指不定数目中的“另一个”;the other是指两个人或两样事物中的“另一个”。例:

  Have another piece of cake.

  再吃一块饼吧。

  Please fatch another cup for me.

  请替我另拿一个杯子来。

  That"s quite another matter.

  那完全是另一回事。

  Both my uncles are abroad,one in Paris and the other in New York.

  我的两个叔叔都在国外,一个在巴黎,另一个在纽约。

  One of them is yours;the other is mine.

  一个是你的,另一个是我的。

  值得注意的是,当我们在两样事物中任选一样时,应用one or the other;在三样或三样以上任选一样时,应用 one or other或one or another。

  在someone,somehow,somewhere等字后,只能用other,不能用another。例:

  We"ll have to do it somehow or other.

  在下列短语中,other也不能改作another:

  some kind or other

  some way or other

  反之,用one时,则用another,例如:one way or another。在only之后,指唯一的就用one或other而不用another。

  This is the only one/other stile to cross before we reach the wood.

  当others和some对比使用在一个句子中,others失去“其他的”意义,而是表示“有的”或“有些”之义,相当于句中前面的some。例如:

  Some like this,others like that.

  有些人喜欢这个,自些人喜欢那个。

  Some cleaned the blackboards,others mopped the floor.

  有些人擦黑板,有些人拖地板。

  ante-,anti-

  这一对前缀的意义并不相同。ante- 是拉丁前缀,其意为“前面”、“在…之前”或“早于”(in front of or earlier than)。它既可以指地点,也可以指时间。例如:

  anteroom 前厅;前房

  antenuptial 婚前的

  antebellum 战前的

  antedate 先期;早日

  antenatal 出生前的/产前的

  antediluvian 太古的;大洪水前的

  antemeridiem(a.m.) 上午的;午前的

  Anti- 是希腊前缀,意为“反对”、“反面”(opposed to or the reverse of)。它加于名词和形容词之前。例如:

  Anti-Japanese War 抗日战争

  anticlockwise 反时针方向

  anti-militarist 反军国主义者

  anti-aircraft gun 高射炮

  anti-trade wind 反季候风

  antichrist 反基督者或伪基督

  anticlimax 戏剧高潮后的缓和;修辞学里

  的“渐降法”

  Anti-也可以用在医学和化学术语里。例如:

  antidote 解毒药

  antiseptic 防腐剂/消毒药

  antibiotics 抗生素

  anti-freezing liquid 防冻液

  antibody 抗体;抗毒素

  在英语中,以ante-,anti- 作为前缀的词不胜枚举,下面也是一些常用的词:

  antecedent 先行词

  antechamber 前厅

  antecessor 祖先;发起人

  antemortem 死前的

  antibiotics 抗菌素

  anticyclone 逆旋风

  anti-everything 样样都反对的

  antigas kit 防毒装备

  anti-icer 防止结冰的装置

  antifriction 摩擦减少剂

  antiphlogistine 消炎剂,消肿剂

  请注意,anticipate的意思是“预期”、“预料”,这里的anti-并不表示“反对”之意,而是“预先”的意思。因此,我们说,这里的anti-等于ante-,是ante- 的变体(variant)。

  anyway, any way

  这一对词的意思并不一样。anyway和anyhow同义,但前者多用于美国英语,后者多用于英国英语。anyway 在句中用作副词和连接词,义:“无论如何”、“不管怎样”,相当于 in any case和at any rate。例:

  Anyway,we can try.

  不管怎样,我们可以试试看。

  I will not change my mind anyway.

  无论如何,我不愿意改变我的宗旨。

  “I can give you a lift if you wait”—“No,I"ll walk Thanks,anyway.”

  “如果你等一下,我可以驾我的车送你去。”——“不用了,我步行好了。谢谢你(尽管我不坐你的车)!”。

  Any way的意思是“任何方法”、“任何方式”,way 是名词,any是修饰它的定语。例:

  If there is any way in which you can help me tide over the difficulties,let me know.

  如果你有什么办法帮助我度过难关,请告诉我。

  He could not find the way to the village in any way.

  他怎么也找不到那条通向村庄的马路。

  I cannot manage it any way.

  我无法做到此事。

  在上面第一个例句中,any way是用作条件状语从句的主语;在第二个例句中,any way作介词 in的宾语;在第三个例句中,any way用作状语,修饰谓语动词 cannot manage。

  as well as,as well

  这一对短语仅差一字之微,意义相近,故很易引起混淆。

  作为习语用作介词时,as well as的涵义是“还有”、“不但…而且…”。值得注意的是,在A as well as B的结构里,语意的重点在 A,不在 B。因此,“He can speak Spanish as well as English.”的译文应该是:“他不但会说英语,而且会讲西班牙语”,决不能译作:“他不但会说西班牙语,而且会讲英语”。如果这样翻译,就是本末倒置了。as well as和 not only… but also…同义,但前者的语意重点和后者的语意重点恰好颠倒。

  如果 as well as用作连词引出比较从句,其义为“和…一样好”。因此,“He speaks Spanish as well as English.”应译作:“他说西班牙语像说英语一样好”。语意的重点依旧在前部,不在后半部。

  请注意 as well as以下的用法:

  She called on you as well as I.

  不但我来看你,她也拜访了你。

  She called on you as well as me.

  她不但拜访了我,也拜访了你。

  在下列句中,as well as表示“像…一样”的涵义:

  She as well as you is an English teacher.

  她像你一样也是英文教师。

  这里的谓语动词用is,不用are,因为句中的主语是she,不是she和you。

  As well是副词短语,其义为“也”,相当于too,它一般放在句末,有时和连词and或but搭配使用。例:

  He is a worker,and a poet as well.

  他是工人,但也是诗人。

  China possesses enormous quantities of coal and is rich in other minerals as well.

  中国拥有大量煤炭,其他的矿藏也很丰富。

  Mr.Liu can speak English,but he can speak Cantonese as well.

  刘先生会说英语,但他也能讲广东话。

asleep, sleeping

这两个词都表示“入睡”、“睡着”的意思,但用法各异,主要区别有以下几点:

(一)asleep是表语形容词,在句中放在verb“tobe”之后;它不能放在名词之前,例如我们不可以说:Look at the asleep baby,应把asleep改为sleeping。例:

She was fast asleep;I couldn"t wake her up.她睡得很熟,我喊不醒她。

The old man has fallen asleep.那个老人睡着了。

请注意,be asleep是指“睡着”的状态,如果表示“入睡”的意味,就要用fall asleep。上面两个例句反映了这个区别。

(二)sleeping 是定语形容词,它放在它所修饰的名词之前,如the sleeping baby。如果放在 verb“to be”之后(He is sleeping),sleeping不是形容词,而是动词,is sleeping 是现在进行时。例:

Who is that sleeping man?那个在睡觉的人是谁?

Keep an eye on the sleeping baby.照看好那个在睡觉的婴孩。

Let sleeping dogs lie.莫惹事生非。

sleeping一词有构词能力,它能和另一些词构成复合名词。如:sleeping-bag(睡袋);sleeping-car(卧车);sleeping-pill(安眠药);sleeping-sickness(昏睡症);sleeping-partner((不参与经营的)匿名合伙人)。

Sleeping有一近义词,即sleepy。sleepy既可作表语,又可作定语。作表语时,义:“困倦”、“想睡觉”,用作定语时,义:“贪睡”、“寂静的”。例:

The children fell sleepy;put them to bed.孩子们困了,把他们放到床上睡吧。

John is a sleepyhead.约翰是个贪睡的人。

Here are the outskirts/suburbs of Kowloon.Do you like this sleepy valley?

这里是九龙的郊区。你喜欢这寂静的山谷吗?

at ease,with ease

这两个介词短语的词义范围和使用场合并不相同。at ease的意思是“安逸地”、“安心地”、“自在地”(feeling confident or relaxed),其反义短语为ill at ease;with ease的意思是“轻松地”、“容易地”(easily or without difficulty)。

就使用场合而言,at ease即可作表语,亦可作状语;with ease 只能用作状语。例:

The old couple are now quite at ease as their son is out of danger.

这一对老夫妻现在可安心了,因为他们的儿子已经脱离危险。

With good social security,the aged can live at ease.有好的社会保障,老年人都过得很安逸。

Her promise of support set my mind at ease.她答应支持我,就使我放心了。

I don"t know why he is ill at ease.我不知道为什么他心神不宁。

They fulfilled the task with ease.他们轻松地完成了任务。

Our football team gained the day with ease.我们的足球队很轻松地就赢了这场球。

Every day we marched twenty miles with ease.每天我们毫不费力地行进二十英里。

注:stand at ease是军事术语,义“稍息”;take one"s ease是“休息”或“无拘无束”。例:

The soldiers are standing at ease now.士兵们现在在立正稍息。

We are now taking our ease.我们现在是优哉游哉。

Please sit and take your ease while enjoying a cup of coffee.请坐下来舒舒服服地喝杯咖啡。

at heart,by heart

这一组短语的涵义也各不相同。

At heart 的意思是“在心里”、“心底里”或“本质上”(from the heart,from the bottom of one"s heart or essentially)。by heart 的意思是“背诵”、“熟记”(by rote;to learn so well that one can remember it perfectly)。请看下面例句:

That socialite is a rascal at heart.那个知名人士实质上是个坏蛋。

A councillor should have the collective interest of society at heart.议员应当关心大众的利益。

At heart,Mr.Lin does not approve your proposal.林先生的心里并不赞同你的建议。

Mr.Wang looks stem,but he is kind at heart.王先生看来严肃,但买质上他很仁慈。

I know this poem by heart.我熟读/我能背诵这首诗。

I don"t see the point of learning by heart all the dates in the history book!

我真不明白为什么要把历史书里所有的日期都要记下来!

请注意下列短语的意思:(跟前例 have something at heart相近)

in one"s heart of hearts 在内心深处

take something to heart 认真考虑/关注某事

set one"s heart on something 决心做/得到某事/物

cut(or touch)sb to the heart 触及某人痛处

one"s heart is in something 把整个心放在某事上

at last,at length

这一对短语都有“终于”、“最后”的意思,但涵义和使用场合有所不同。

At length 这个词组共有三个意义: (1)长时间地。例如:He spoke at(great)length.(2)详细地。例如:They treated the subject at length.(3)终于;最后。例:After flying for ten hours,they got to San Francisco at length.

作第三种意义使用时,at length与at last同义,但它们的内涵却有所不同。当人们做某事时,遇到了困难,经过奋斗,最后得以完成,在这种场合,我们用at last。如果在做的过程中,经历了很长的时间才得以完成,这时候,不论困难大小,都可用at length表示。为此,我们说,at last强调的是“经过努力奋斗”;at length 强调的是“经历很长的时间”。通过下列例句的对比,不难看出它们之间的区别:

Before they climbed down the side of the cliff,they met with many obstacles,but they surmounted them at last.从悬崖的侧面爬下来之前,他们遇到了许多障碍,但终于把它们克服了。

In spite of every obstacle,they have at last arrived at the destination.

尽管障碍很多,他们终于到达了目的地。

After a voyage of five months,they at length arrived safe and sound.经过五个月的航行,他们终于安全抵达。

请注意,用length构成的介词短语很多,常见的有:

Hong Kong Exhibition Centre measures 200 metres in length.香港展览中心长达二百公尺。

They discussed this problem at great length.他们非常详细地讨论了这个问题。

Yesterday I had my picture taken at the studio at full length.昨天我在照相馆拍了一张全身照。

They travelled through the length and breadth of the country.他们走遍全国。

at(the)least,not(in)the least

这一对短语的涵义有很大的差异。

At least的意思是“至少”(指数量或程度上)也可解作“反正就是…”。它与 at the least,at the very least同义,可互换使用,但后两者有强调意味,远不及前者用得普遍。

下面请看例句:

The total enrolment of the university in the academic year 1991-1992 was at least 10,000,including undergraduate and postgraduate students.

在1991-1992学年期间,该大学至少有一万名大学生,包括本科大学生和研究主。

Even if you cannot help him,you can give him encouragement at least.就算你未能帮助他,至少你可以鼓励他。

Whether you like it or not,at the very least,this is reality.不管你是否喜欢,反正这是个现实。

Not the least 的意思是“毫不”、“一点也不”(by no means),也可写作 not in the least。但后者一般不用作定语。现今,后者更常见。

Are you cold?—Not(in)the least.你冷吗?—一点也不冷。

Spanish has not the least interest for them.(作定语,没有in)他们刘西班牙语毫不感兴趣。

(此句亦可改写为:They do not take the least interest in Spanish)

You shouldn"t relax your vigilance(in)the least.你们不能丝毫放松警惕。

另一方面,not least义为“尤其是,特别是”:

That film caused public revulsion, not least among the education circles.

该电影引起公愤,特别是教育界的深恶。

短语 least of all的涵义是“最不”。例:That"s the thing I like least of all.(这是我最不喜欢的东西)。

at the end of,by the end of

这一对短语的意思都是“在…的末了”、“在…的一端”,意义上相似,但使用场合有所不同。

一般说来,at the end of用于表示具体事物或场所的场合,它也可以用来表示比喻意。例:

The school is situated at the end of the street.该校位于这条街的尽头。

We"ll have an exam in English at the end of January.一月底我们要参加英语考试。

They were at the end of their patience.他们忍无可忍。

He is at the end of his wits.他智穷才尽,束手无策。

By the end of用于表示时间的场合,往往含有“不迟于”的意味。值得注意的是,at the end of亦可用于表示时间的场合(见上面第二个例句),但其义和by the end of有所不同。试对比下面两例:

at the end of January一月底(指一月份的最后一天)

by the end of January一月底之前(指一月份结束前的几天)

We are to complete the task by the end of the year.年底之前我们必须完成此项任务。

Their communication is at an end.他们的交往到此为止。

短语 in the end的涵义是“终于”、“最后”,其义相当于 at last。例:

I"m sure everything will turn out satisfactory in the end.我确信,最后一切都会令人满意的。

In the end things will mend.船到桥头自会直。

await,wait

这两个词都是动词,又都有“期待”、“等候”之意,但用法有所不同,它们的区别如下:

(一)await是及物动词,后面直接接宾语;wait虽然也可用作及物动词,但在现代英语中,一般作不及物动词用,与for,to,till,until等词连用。

(二)await的宾语大都是抽象名词,如:decision,reply,arrival,announcement,return等;wait for的宾语一般是人或事物。

The judge awaits the coroner"s inquest before giving a verdict.法官在作裁决前等待验尸官的调查。

I have been waiting for her for an hour at the bus stop.我在公共车站等候她已一小时了。

(三)await之后接动名词;wait之后接动词不定式。例如:

We shall await hearing further from them.

We shall wait to hear further from them.我们在静候他们进一步的消息。

(四)await多用于书面语;wait 多用于口语。如:

This plan awaits the approval of the board of directors.这项计划有待董事局批准。

I have been waiting here for a long time.我已在这里等了好久了。

(五)wait 除作动词外,还可用作名词。例:

I had a long wait for the train.我等火车等了好久。

They pursue a policy of wait and see.他们采取等待和观望的政策。

如上所述,wait在特定情况下也可以用作及物动词,例如:to wait your turn;to wait one"s opportunity。

请注意下列句子中await和wait的使用场合:

We await (or wait for)your reply.

We wait for(不能用await)you to reply.

I shall wait to bring her home.(不能用await)

I await (or wait for)your ruling on the matter with some impatience.

当await的主语是没有生命的事物而宾语是人时,await表示 be in store或lie in wait for之意。如:

On arriving at the guest house,he found a telegram awaiting him.

Little did he realize what a surprise awaited him at home.

A hearty welcome will await you.

请注意,Time and tide wait(s)for no man(岁月不待人)的wait既可以加s,亦可不加s。

award,reward

这两个词都可以用作名词和动词,作名词时,意义相近,但不是同义词。

作名词时,award的意思是“奖品”、“奖金”,其义与prize近似,两者都指因为作出杰出成就而受奖。例:

The Olympic winner received a gold medal as an award.

He won the second award of $ 2,000.

而reward作名词时,其意为“赏金”、“酬金”或一些非金钱的报酬。例:

We will offer a reward of ten thousand dollars for information about the case.

如果有人提供有关案件的情报,我们愿意出一万元赏金。

We don"t expect substantial rewards.我们并不期望得到优厚的报酬。

用作动词时,award的意思是“授与”、“颁发”、“判给”;reward则表示“报答”、“酬谢”之意。例:

He was awarded the first prize for Outstanding Industrial Design.他获杰出工业设计一等奖。

We judge awarded him twenty thousand dollars as damages.法官判给他二万元作为赔偿费。

You should reward them according to their deserts.你应该对他们论功行赏。

Is that how you reward me for my help?你就是这样来报答我给你的帮助吗?

reward也可以用于比喻意。例:

I would feel amply rewarded if my book—A Study of English Twins—could be of some help to the readers.

如果我的书《英语学生词语之研究》对读者有所帮助的话,我就感到心满意足了。

be ashamed for,be ashamed of

这一对形容词短语的涵义并不相同。

To be ashamed for 的意思是“为…(一般指外在的人或事物,如他人)而感到羞耻”;to be ashamed of的意思是“由于…(一般指内在的人或事物,如自己)而感到羞耻”。例:

I"m ashamed for you.我为你感到羞耻。

I"m ashamed of you.我以你为耻。

I felt ashamed for the callousness of the government in tackling land speculation.

对于政府处理地产投机态度麻木不仁,我引以为耻。

Are you ashamed of doing such a thing?你做这样的事感到羞耻吗?

其他因搭配介词不同而含义及用法改变的词语有:

He is considerate of other people"s feelings.他能体谅别人的感情。

He is considerate to old people.他对老年人很体贴。

I"m anxious for a change.我渴望改变一下环境。

I"m anxious about his health.我为他的健康而担忧。

She did it of herself.她自愿去做此事。

She did it by herself.她独立去做此事。

They are suffering for their country.他们正在为国受苦。

They are suffering from the war.他们由于战争而在受难。

be going to,will

Be going to在表示“将要”的意味时,很容易和will混淆不清。

试看下面的对话:

A:The detergent has been used up.洗洁精已用光了。

B:I"m going to get some today.C:I"ll get some today.

乍然看来,乙和丙的答话的意思是一样的,都是:“今天我要去买些”,其实不然。乙用 am going to get回答甲,其言外之意是:“在甲讲洗洁精用完这句话之前,他早已心中有数,并且早就有去买洗洁精的打算”。丙用will get来回答,表示:“事前并不知道洗洁精已用完,原先也没有打算去买,直等到甲讲了之后,他才决定去买”。

通过上面的例句,我们可以知道下列对话中乙、丙的回答的不同涵义了:

A:Where is my dictionary?

B:I"m going to get it for you.

C:I"ll get it for you.

此外,be going to和will还有下列的区别:

(一)be going to表示即将发生的动作;will表示将来发生的事情,不一定是最近期间之事。例:

She told him she was going to quit the job.她告诉他,她即将辞职不干。

She will go to Australia next year.她明年要去澳洲。

(二) be going to可以用以表示某人打算做某事;will则用以叙述某件将要发生之事。前者含有主观意愿;后者只是客观的叙述。例:

He is not going to be made a scapegoat.他不会去做替罪羊。

He will not become a scapegoat.他不会做替罪羊。

(三)在表示按计划或安排要发生的动作时,可以用be going to;will只表示单纯的将来,并无按规定或计划之意。例:

The railway is going to be open on October 1.这条铁路将于十月一日通车。

This railway will be electrified when there is a need.有需要时,这条铁路将改为电气化。

Be off,to be off

这两个短语的涵义并不相同。

Be off!的意思是“走开!”、“滚开!”,相当于英语的Be gone!或Get away!例:

Be off! you wretch!滚开!你这个卑鄙的家伙!

Be off! or I"ll call the police.你出去,否则我要报警啦。

Be off!亦可写作 Be off with you!或 Off with you!这三种形式可互换使用。

To be off的涵义较多,有“离去”、“出发”、“脱离”、“暂停”、“中断”、“取消”等义。例:

I must be off.(=I must leave now.)我该走了。

We are off!(=Off we go!)我们出发了!

值得注意的是,We are off!和Off we go!可根据不同的场合和上下文,表达不同的时间概念。它们能表示We have started、We are starting和We are about to start等义。同样,They are off to Macau根据不同的场合,可分别译作:“他们已去澳门”、“他们正在动身去澳门”和“他们将要去澳门”。

Her shoes are off!她把鞋脱了!

The electricity(water or gas)is off!断电(水或煤气)啦!

Their engagement is off.他们的婚约取消了。

除上列各义外,to be off还可用以表述下列意思:

We are off every Wednesday.我们每星期三休息。

She sounds off on the telephone.谈电话时她有点不客气/不自然/不对劲。

All books have 20% off.所有的书籍均八折出售。

This fish is slightly off.这鱼有点不新鲜。

The motor is off.  马达停了。

To be off 还可用在某些固定的说法里。如:

to be off with the old love and on with the new(另找新欢)

believe,believe in

这一对词语都表示“相信不疑”的意思,但词意有细微的区别。

Believe表示“相信”、“信以为真”(to accept as true)之意,它是及物动词,其后直接跟宾语。例:

Do you believe his reports?你相信他的报告吗?

I could hardly believe my eyes.我几乎不能相信自己的眼睛。

In ancient times it was believed that the earth was flat.古时候,人们认为地球是扁平的。

Believe in则表示“信仰”、“信任”(to have faith in somebody or something)之意。其后的常用搭配语为:有关宗教、理论、原则、概念及可信任之人,如:a religion、ghosts、 fairies、 a theory、 a friend等词;例中的believe为不及物动词。如:

We do not believe in ghosts.我们不信鬼神。

He believes in getting plenty of exercise.他相信多锻炼身体就会有好处。

In the days of the French Revolution,people believed in liberty,equality and fraternity.

法国大革命时代的人们信奉自由、平等及博爱。

现在试比较下列两语的不同涵义:

I believe him.(=I believe what he says)我相信他(的话)。

I believe in him.(=I trust him )我相信他是一个可以信得过的人。(即:我信任他)

在英美人的谈话中,经常可以听到这么一句口头禅——Believe me:这是一个用以表示希望对方相信自己谈话的口头语,它相当于I bet或 Take my word for it。例:

Believe me,you will get well very soon.你一定会很快就恢复健康的。

Believe me 可以根据不同的场合,译作“真的”、“我不骗你”、“一定会”或“请相信”。

borrow,lend

这一对动词都是“借”、“借用”的意思,但使用场合不同。

Borrow是“借他人的东西以暂时使用”,表示“从(问)…借”之意,故译“借入”;其搭配介词为from。例:

May I borrow your car?我可以借你的汽车用一下吗?

Did you borrow money from him ?你问他借过钱吗?

Some people are good at borrowing but had at giving back.有些人很会借东西,但很少归还。

Japanese has borrowed heavily from Chinese.日语从汉语借用了大量的词汇。

Lend是“将自己的东西暂时借给别人使用”,表示“借给……”之意,故译“借出”;其搭配介词为to。例:

Will you lend me your car?你可否把汽车借给我?

I"m sorry.I"ve already lent my car to Mr.Wang.对不起,我已经把我的汽车借给王先生了。

在某些场合下,“lend…to”可以表示“给予”、“赋予”之意。例:

A fireplace lends coziness to a room.壁炉给房间带来温暖舒适之感。

A becoming dress lends charm to a lady.合身的服装会给女士增添魅力。

The rural environment lent itself to the restoration of his health.

乡村的环境有助于他恢复健康。

Loan与lend同义,前者大都用于美国,后者大多用于英国:

He loaned/lend me all the antiques for exhibition.他借给我全部古董作为展览之用。

Loan亦可用作名词,如:make a loan(借出);pay off(repay)a loan(偿清或偿还借款)。例:

He obtained cheap loans from the bank.他从银行获得低息贷款。

breath,breathe

这两个词都是表示“呼吸”的意思,但词性和读音不同。 breath/breI是名词; breathe/briJ/是动词。初学英语的人容易将breathe的e丢掉,以致与breath混淆不清。

请看下面例句:

After we had climbed to the top of the hill,we stopped to gather breath.我们爬到山顶后便停下来歇口气。

Only in the countryside can we have a breath of fresh air.只有在郊野我们才能呼吸到新鲜的空气。

He has run himself out of breath.他跑得上气不接下气。

The old lady breathed her last this morning.老太太今天早上断气了。

In an attack of asthma,she breathed hard.哮喘发作,她感到呼吸困难。

It"s healthy to breathe deeply in the morning早上作深呼吸对身体有益。

请注意,在下列例句内,breathe和 take a breath不能互换使用,因为它们表达的涵义有所不同:

We breathe in order to live.为了生存,我们要呼吸。

We paused to take a breath我们停下来喘了一口气。

bring,take,carry,fetch

这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用场合各不相同。

Bring作“带来”、“拿来”解; take是bring的对语,作“带去”、“拿去”解。例:

Next year you may bring your family over from England.明年你可以把你的家属从英国带来。

Why don"t you bring your girl friend to the party?你为什么不把你的女友带来参加宴会?

Next time don"t forget to brig me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了把一份您的作品带给我。

Please take these books to the library for me.请把这些书替我带到图书馆去。

Take the box away,please.请把盒子拿走。

Carry表示“运载”、“携带”之意,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至用头;fetch则表示“去拿来”(go and bring)的意思。例:

They are carrying some paintings to the art gallery.他们正在把一些画带到艺术馆去。

This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.这辆巴士规定乘载一百人。

Please fetch me the documents in that room.请到那间房间去把那些文件拿来给我。

Please wait a minute.He"s just gone out to fetch some water.请等一会儿。他刚出去打水。

现将bring,take和fetch用在一个句中,以便区别:

Take that box and bring it with you,or if it is too heavy for you tocarry it,I"ll send Joe to fetch it.

请注意,bring之后可以接不定式和动名词,如:

You will never bring me to admit it.或 You will never bring me to admitting it.

在这种场合下,英美人用不定式的居多。bring在这两句中表示 cause someone to do something之意(使某人做某事)。

相似词语辨析exceptionable,exceptional8篇

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